IMT Centre For Distance Learning

The Institute of Management Technology-Centre for Distance Learning, based near Delhi, equips future managers to take on the challenge of an increasingly global and technological workplace. Managers must be able to adapt and be flexible. The CDL's curriculum and programs are designed to do just that.

The CDL's vision is to establish itself as a global integrated business school acknowledged for its strength in management education, leadership in business and excellence in the corporate field. Accordingly, The CDL's mission is to create an academic community committed to innovation and lifelong learning.

Students at IMT-CDL have sixteen programs from which to choose. Students have the opportunity to earn:

• a one or two year degree in Management,

• a Masters of Science in Cyber Law and Security, a newly added program in collaboration with National Law University of Jodphur,

• one year degrees in Cyber Security, Taxation, Business Administration, Financial Management, Materials and Supply Chain, Marketing Management, Human Resource Management, Export Management and Retail Management.

IMT-CDL also offers two doctoral programs: a Management Fellowship, and a PhD program, which was recently created. For students in the corporate sector, there are two year degrees available in Management.

These programs are conducted by highly esteemed faculty, led by Director Dr. A.M. Sherry, a professor of IT at IMT-CDL. Dr. Sherry is joined by a faculty of the best and brightest graduates of internationally acclaimed institutions of higher learning. The faculty is in tune with the constant changing needs and expectations of a global industry, and has first-hand knowledge of what today's managers need to know in order to succeed.

Prospective students are screened by a selection committee. Students interested in two year programs take an admissions exam. Exempted from this exam are students that have already earned a one year degree from IMT-CDL, military personnel, senior public administrators and professionals in the academic, technical or legal fields. For students with a degree from a foreign institution, admission is subject to approval by the Ministry of HRD, Government of India.

There are currently six regional information centers to serve students. At these centers, students can receive academic counseling, and speak with university personnel. These centers can be found in: Delhi, Noida, Mumbai, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Kolkata.

Students at IMT-CDL have access to an extensive digital library, powered by Referenceware. This library provides searchable remote access to the full, unabridged editions of thousands of Business, Technical and Finance texts.

In addition to programs of study for students, IMT-CDL also operates a Research and Consultancy Division. This division provides training programs, industrial planning, feasibility studies, market research, software development and other activities to provide professional enrichment for its students.

IMT-CDL provides Management Development Programs to educate students in current critical management issues. These programs are centered on the relevant topics of Leadership, Financial Management, Information Technology, Human Resource Development, Strategic Mentoring and Professional Renewal.

Students who enroll at IMT-CDL will find themselves at the forefront of innovative thinking about management technology. Graduates can feel confident they are equipped with very best tools possible to establish themselves as global leaders in management technology.

Hackers on a Recruitment Mission

If you were an aspiring hacker, would you respond to a help-wanted ad seeking bilingual virus writers, or would you think it a hoax and carry on your merry hacking way? There is, in fact, a demand for hackers who speak different languages, especially Mandarin, Russian and Portuguese, and positions are being advertised. They are just not advertised in the classified section of your local newspaper.

Ambitious hackers are no longer satisfied with targeting the English speaking market. They want to branch out internationally to tap into the lucrative market of emerging economies. Specifically, they want to exploit online gaming sites in China, peer-to-peer network applications in Japan and banks in Brazil. These countries are all the more vulnerable because their law enforcement agencies don't have the sophistication to counter Internet crime. Hackers are more likely to get away with crime in Brazil than they are in the US or Europe.

Hackers have learnt a lot while focusing on the English market. They know what is needed to make a success of a campaign, which is why they are now advertising positions on underground Internet channels. The minimum requirements are set quite high. They want creative virus writers with the ability to create both grammatically correct and persuasive web pages and spam emails.

They want to appear as professional and legitimate as possible so that people will download viruses and disclose their personal details without hesitation. Internet criminals have seen the benefit in using increasingly sophisticated hacking methods. As a result they are willing to bear the costs of hiring talented writers so that they can make even more money when their endeavours succeed.

This new turn towards professionalism is causing sleepless nights for all major Internet players. Google, Yahoo and Microsoft now have to develop even more advanced security measures to protect their international interests. They also have to rely on the capability of local authorities to clamp down on Internet crime and introduce harsher penalties for transgressors.

With hackers looking inwards to hunt out and develop rising stars, and with their increasingly business-like approach to cyber crime, will we see the rise of cartels and turf wars as they battle for supremacy? The concept is an interesting one, and would make for a fascinating anthropological study if it weren't so incredibly frightening.

Recommended sites:

http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/02/21/BUFVV61DU.DTL

http://news.softpedia.com/news/Hackers-Now-Hiring-Hackers-79245.shtml

E-Commerce And Cyber Crime - Part 5

E-business security is not any detached process. It is an ongoing as well as comprehensive process of adding, removing and managing action layers that are based upon holistic risk management strategies. In military as well as other organizations, this concept is referred to as "defense in depth," a popular mark that does not sufficiently capture the concept of a "from-the inside-out" cyber defense.

Nowadays the organizations are providing greater access to their systems to the normal people as well as the outer systems. So the danger is immense now. For getting safe from that danger, an organization needs to integrate a cyber defense system encompassing all the interconnectedness points from the inside out. In order to avoid escalating e-crime risks, the organizations need to avoid one dimensional, under informed behavior and rather develop a holistic strategy in case of cyber defense. There are some steps that are taken by the leading organizations. These are as follows:

1. Establish security policies that are focused, clear and integrated.
2. Alert the employees properly and provide them with technical training.
3. Hire capable as well as trained workers and support them in building and maintaining an integrated response to attacks.
4. Inspire awareness about the electronic risks and threats throughout the organization.
5. Pursue the e-crime perpetrators against the organization to the fullest extent of law.

Such a system offers a lot of benefits in deterring attacks and in diminishing the intrusion effects. If properly implemented as well as communicated, an enterprise wide cyber defense system can help an organization in case of preventing liability on behalf of the client management, avoiding regulatory action or potential lawsuits, recovering lost revenue, maintaining or restoring its reputation as well as integrity. Thus preparedness can become a strategic advantage in a business environment that is increasingly dependent on the security as well as reliability of the computer networks.

An ideal enterprise wide cyber defense includes integrated strategies which is established in the form of policies, procedures, philosophies, practices etc. and is implemented through defined action plans. These strategies should encompass legal, technical and business strategies. These strategies should be implemented in such a way that considers customers, employees, suppliers, third party relationships and other key stakeholders. Thus, instead of a "wrap around" capability which encompasses all the systems as well as processes, a strong cyber defense system is an integral part of those processes and systems.

When creating a cyber defense system, organization leaders should consider very carefully what they can lose.

Assets of new economy business encompass a wide variety of intangibles that can be removed very easily in a virtual setting. In order to understand the implications of potential losses and have the ability to defend against them, organization leaders need to learn how to define "assets" in the widest possible way. Once the organization knows what they need to protect, they need to develop a specific strategy to implement an enterprise wide defense program. Such a strategy should encompass response procedures as well as standards that are integrated into daily business.

Cyber Law - FTC Guidelines Facts

Like every other area of our lives, internet is changing as well. If you were able to write anything you wanted on your websites just few years ago, this is not the case anymore. Because government wants to protect consumers from dishonest business practice on the internet, FTC accepted some guidelines for bloggers and affiliate marketers.

Everything started because FTC was receiving many complaints from consumers because of false and misleading advertising of the Acai products. In addition to misleading advertising, FDA was angry because of rebills on customer credit cards.

In its simplest meaning, bloggers and affiliate marketers are obliged to disclose certain information on their web pages. The most important question is who needs to have a disclaimer on the website? FDA answer is simple - A disclaimer or disclosure must be present in case of sponsored communication between affiliate marketer (or blogger) and seller.

What in fact sponsored communication means is a rather complicated question, but FTC Guidelines have provided some basic explanation. Disclosure must be present only in case of material communication - material communication is present, if reviewer received any kind of consideration (cash, merchandise) in exchange for review. This simply means that if you have any benefits from the sale of product you are presenting on your websites, you must have a disclosure on your website which explains your connection with the producer or seller of the product.

FTC guidelines also impose liability on advertisers, advertising agencies and endorsers (including celebrity endorsers).

Another important thing besides the question whether you need a disclaimer or not is also where on your website should you have your disclaimer. The guidelines only say that disclaimer must be placed clearly and conspicuously. I suggest using common sense approach - put the disclaimer where your clients (visitors) can see it. There is no sense of hiding it from your customer, because you may be responsible for the damage caused to your client.

Are FTC Guidelines threat to the affiliates? Yes they are, but only to bad ones. If you are selling good product, the fact that you will get commission for every sale won't turn away your client.

Best Computer Distance Learning Programs

As we live in a techno-driven world, knowing more about technology and computers can make you stand ahead of others. The present day is all about computers. In fact computers have made this world into an e-world where everything is just a click away. In just about every business computers are playing a major role.

Today, if you are not confident in using computer or specific computer programs you might find that it is tough to get a job in a field that you have been in, even if you have been caring experience of many years. These days employers are expecting employees to be able to use computers and have proper knowledge of various online tools, so if you haven't learned yet, this is the time to give a serious thought for applying different computer courses.

At present, there are numerous online computer courses and distance learning programs that are being offered from leading universities. The best thing about these courses or distance learning degrees is that they are affordable and comparatively easy to learn. In addition to this, another awesome part of these online computer degrees is that they allow you to learn in the privacy of your own home.

You don't have to be anxious about being the oldest or youngest in a class or appearing uneducated in front of other people. By applying for online computer courses, you can study in an environment where you are comfortable and can really absorb the information properly. Apart from this, these courses cover a broad spectrum of subjects ranging from simple applications to complex programming languages. Some of the best computer distance learning programs that is gaining its popularity in current scenario is:

Animation Distance Learning Programs - This distance learning course is ideal for those students who are interested in a career that involves bringing characters, settings and drawings to life via the internet, computer generated programs, or traditional animation art techniques. This online degree in animation also includes courses in many different areas, not just specifically animation. Students can anticipate taking classes on two and three dimensional drawing and animation, storyboarding, background design and programs on working with various operating systems and software programs. With a degree in animation you can also be hired as an entry level animator, video production artists, forensic artists or computer generated special effects artists.

Computer Network Engineering - This degree provides you ideal opportunity to make a career where you want to get involved in the design and maintenance of both the hardware and software necessary for a computer network. During this online program, you will learn essential skills and knowledge in a vast assortment of computer applications, software applications and troubleshooting methods. The best part of this course is - it is the combination of technical and general education courses that can help you develop skills in critical thinking, logic, communication, and problem-solving. The degree also helps you prepare for entry-level jobs in the industry including network administrator and computer support specialist.

Online Computer Software Engineering - Addressing the rapid rise in demand for software engineering professionals, this online computer software engineering course provides you with an understanding of the latest technologies that are being developed, and encompasses managerial and technical aspects of software engineering. The major highlight of this online program is it also offers interactive e-Learning method and incorporates best-practices in computer science, project management, engineering, interface design and other disciplines. A software engineering degree can be a precious plus point in your career and there is no easier way to obtain one than through an online program.

Cyber Security Distance Learning Programs - This course provide you with an in-depth study in IT Infrastructure Security. In this distance learning program you will be exposed to most important facets of computer security, including cyber-law, cyber-terrorism, viral activity, compliance issues along with hardening the operating system. Today many businesses and nations have shifted the control of essential processes in manufacturing, banking, and communications to networked computers. With an online degree in Cyber Security, you will acquire the knowledge to be on the front lines and guard these vital infrastructures from cyber crime attacks.

These are some online computer degrees that can help you find the right career-path. Attaining a degree in any of these courses can enable you to work with computers and the internet in ways that most people can't. Looking at the present scenario, the bottom line is that having an online computer degree is one way of the best ways to get a job that you might have once thought was impossible. You may place yourself in one the peak paid employees in the company.

The Inevitability of International Cyber Attacks - Are We Ready?

The problem of International Cyber Attacks

General Keith Alexander, Director of the National Security Agency (NSA) and the man in charge of Cybercom, the U.S.'s new cyber security command, issued a warning recently of massive increases in the number of attempts by hackers and foreign countries to breach the nation's internet security.

What had originally started as virus and malware attacks by amateur hackers and disgruntled employees against computers and networks have now morphed into worldwide penetration by criminal enterprises and state sponsored terrorists.

The world of information security attacks and threats are growing in power and sophistication with nation backed Cyber attacks emerging. Although constituting isolated attacks so far, the new wave of Cyber attacks are more prevalent and dangerous. And, with the advent of (often hostile) national involvement in Cyber offensives, the risk to our nation's National Security is real and potentially devastating.

At risk are our tremendous advantages in military power, intellectual capital and industrial wealth.

Assets the United States has spent tremendous human and intellectual capital on to develop are now at risk of being stolen by clever cyber thieves that exploit weaknesses in our cyber security. The fact that cyber thieves can now operate across international borders and in safe have third countries with impunity only increases the threat. The threat affects government and industry alike.

Although most experts have predicted that this day would arrive, online infiltration could cause huge damage to the U.S. military and the nation's infrastructure, and the government and industry is not presently prepared to secure itself against such attacks.

The Obama administration is promising to spend billions to upgrade cyber defenses, and has already hired hundreds of specialists with doctorates in computer technology to work at the Cybercom and start building better security measures.

But the problem is one of huge proportions complicated by the rapid advance of technology, lack of clear concept definition, failure of adequate international cooperation and distrust between government and the private sector.

The 21st century battlefield is comprised of many components that include the Internet and all things that connect from a computer to the Internet. The terrain also encompasses information systems like the electrical grids, telecommunication systems, and various corporate and military systems.

In addition, although both defensive and offensive measures are required to fight the war on cyber terrorism, the cyber protective world is clearly operating in a reactive manner. Compounding this is the fact that the international networks of data are growing at a technological pace that outstrips cyber security development.

Although new technologies and processes are emerging to fight hackers and cyber terrorist, there is little uniformity in their use and adoption. In addition, international standards and cyber threat protection laws are not yet in place.

Is the Threat Real?

Although there is not yet a universal outcry against International Cyber Terrorism, recent events like the hacking of strategic Pentagon databases and the withdrawal of Google from internet operations in China are symptomatic of the magnitude of the problem. Many experts equate the complacent attitude toward International Cyber Attacks as that seen before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that started World War II for the United States or the attacks on September 11, 2001 that started the War on Terror.

Cyber attacks are often classified as low probability, high damage events similar to major natural disasters or fatal airplane crashes. When they happen, the level of public concern is high. And the number of occurrences, the frequency and magnitude of attacks are increasing rapidly.

Developments in Cyber Security solutions

There is a growing awareness of the problem of International Cyber Attacks although the pace of development is slow and irregular. The Federal Government has tasked two agencies (National Security Agency - NSA for international cyber terrorism and the Department of Homeland Security- DHS for domestic cyber attacks) but there are problems with coordination and funding. More attention, a clear vision, definition of terms and significant increases in funding are required in order to develop effective solutions.

In addition, infrastructure assets are required in the form of the development and use of critical information and other databases. Each infrastructure development needs to be marketed to and adopted by the entire cyber defense community in order to enhance and leverage all available development in technology, law and standards. Universal evaluation of research and use of centralized data is an important first step in the war against International Cyber Attacks.

Until government and industry recognize the problem and cooperate in search of a solution International Cyber Attacks will grow and increase the threat to our Cyber Security.

Download Law Software

With the internet becoming an integral aspect of people's lives, there is no need of mentioning how law software can move your law firm into higher heights. In modern world, it's not a secret that man cannot survive without a computer or better still, computer programs. Any kind of software has the effects of making any business appear lively in all its operations. Modern software has provided great solutions to people's problem be they domestic or professional problems and leaving them satisfied than they have never been.

Although the role of software cannot be mentioned, it's also important to consider ethical terms when it comes to downloading software. If you need to download Law Software you must do so on legal terms otherwise it will make your professional as a custodian of law questionable. Downloading any kind of software has become pretty easy nowadays with so many websites providing a platform for lawyers to get any kind of software they need to better their businesses. Although most lawyers, attorneys and other law practitioners are showing a great interest in wanting to learn about how this software can improve their firms, the main question is whether they are really willing to pay a price to acquire them.

Essentially, even though most sites will allow lawyers to download software, most of these sites also do not offer free services as such. So, lawyers must be willing to sacrifice a small amount of money to get the software installed at their offices so that they can reap the benefits. Even when downloading the software online, one must also be very careful and before you start being amazed by the features and functionality of the software, it's only fair you ensure that you use software that is licensed.

Everyone using law software must join the fight against cyber crimes and the increasing use of unlicensed programs in professional businesses. Every lawyer must be driven by his or her integrity in seeing that he or she downloads a genuine copy of software whose copyright is not questionable in anyway. Illegal software can have devastating implications on law firm even though you might not be aware. In any case, it leaves so many questions unanswered especially on the kind of services you are providing your clients if at all you cannot even get a genuine copy of software for your firm. In short, downloading this software requires that you observe all the ethics that comes in getting the software installed at your firm. Although you will have to make choice between downloading the software the legal way or illegally, the choice you make will be a test of your competence and professionalism in law industry.

Cyber Bullying

In recent news I have heard about cyber bullying. As I skim through the articles found on "Examples of Cyber Bullying"; I find that bullies really haven't changed that much just the methods in which they deliver their evil and spread their fear. Children, teenagers mostly, finding new and more cowardly ways to intimidate and slander (or is it libelous) someone else. I have to ask what are these bullies really afraid of? As a teenager I was often called some very nasty names, made fun of because I didn't wear the newest designer clothes and heard some vicious rumors about me which were completely untrue. I always pitied the people who said these things about me, mostly because they did not know me as a person I was just someone who was different, I think that scared them the most. I have learned that it is human nature to fear what is unknown and different. I was also very happy that I was so important to these people that they took time to recognize me as something more than just another face in the crowd!

With today's technology, gathering evidence such as presented on a website or by text of any kind makes putting together a criminal case against the perpetrators easy for the target of such ludicrous behavior. The targets of this kind of cowardly attack should take these kinds of threats very seriously! When presented with evidence of this type of crime everyone has a duty to report it and see that the perpetrators are punished to the fullest extent of the law! At the very least this is mental abuse but could be considered premeditation of serious criminal acts. Most websites have the ability and do track visitors by their IP address, stopping this type of abuse is one of the best ways I can think of to use this technology.

When full registered websites are involved, do a (http://www.whois.net/) search and find out when the site was registered and by whom, print that page for reference later. Go to the website in question and click file -> save page as and print that page also. Contact the company which is hosting the website and inform them that they may be named in the lawsuit if the site is not removed. Document their cooperation or lack thereof. Save all emails and text messages from the attackers, print as many as possible. Contact your local authorities as well as school officials if appropriate and send copies of your evidence to the Federal Communications Commission. Cyber bullying falls into the same category as sending threatening and derogatory (snail) mail and making threatening phone calls! It is illegal and punishable by fine and or jail.

Do these cyber bullies think they are impressing anyone? Who are their friends? What do these cyber bullies say about them when they are not around? Is it really that scary to them that someone may be better at something than they are? Is it because they are jealous of what someone else has? Maybe it is because they are being bullied by someone else and lack the courage, knowledge or resources to get away from their own world of torment!

By Elaine Grimm

Need Of Home Computer Security

With the advancement in technology many people are habitual of doing many important activities and processes through personal computer in different forms. For example the people do e-banking, utility bill transactions, and editing office work etc. So in this situation many hackers do hack and put their influence also on home computer security the most important information through locking the computer. After hacking, the professional hackers can also blackmail the people for their necessary needs. Different types of hacking and lock breaking codes are used in this way. Thus need of home computer security arises front of us.

Protection Of Soft Form Information And Home Computer Security

Different steps can be adopted for the strict check form lost of data present in computer by hackers who can also affect home computer security. It has been observed from last decade that day by day cyber crime rate is increasing, and many people even different government authorities have been affected by this problem. There are also some cases that the much secret security information present in computer workstations of different companies becomes lost due to illegal cyber crime. In this state, many companies are going to adopt the protection of firewalls and different security software. Now cyber law is working efficiently to pursue for any illegal action taken by cyber criminals. Similarly, home computer security is also affected.

One should brows through different websites, which can provide guidance in order to save our computer from any incoming danger. Normally some websites regularly update about any incoming innovation in this direction. As today most of Internet communication is through data subscriber lines giving more upstream and downstream data rate as compared to other medias, so it is very easy to find out the solution of facing problem through different sites at real time on hour of need. As similar to this problem, home computer security is also influenced by such hazards.

Precautionary Measures

By using different tips and adopting precautionary measures related to home computer security one can protect his or her personal computer from being theft of utmost important soft form data. To hold home computer security strong, people should not pay bills using their credit cards etc on Internet as it can give a path for hackers to hack and steal our credit card numbers by which they can use our facility. Also many people do online shopping through different resources, which become so much vulnerable sometimes that situation becomes like it is useless to cry over spilt milk. Hence it is better that one should not show his cards first as it can facilitate others to do gambling by making strong the home computer security.

The best remedy for this problem is that peoples should not float their personal information like codes of different bank cards, bank account number information and utility bills information etc on line, so that no one can hack these information. Therefore by using above mentioned steps people can really feel calm and peace while doing any activity on computer by confirming the home computer security.

Will a Cyber Insurance Boom Affect Employee Data Security Training

With an increase in high profile data breaches and ICO fines, one information security expert asks whether the anticipated growth in the cyber insurance market is going to affect employee data security training.

Last month's fine of £150,000 for Welcome Financial Services woke the private sector up to the ICO's intensified data security offensive. Prior to this, the most notable fine to a business had been the £1,000 fine for Andrew Crossley at ACS: Law, which would have been £200,000 had the firm not ceased trading by the time the fine was issued.

Over in the public sector the fines have been coming thick and fast. Most recently, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust received a £225,000 fine, which comes hot on the heels of the £60,000 fine for St George's Healthcare NHS Trust in London. Press releases from the ICO itself, supported by commentary from the industry, indicate that the gloves are off as far as this particular watchdog is concerned.

Those with an eye on human resources will be aware of the huge increase over the last 10 years of employees suing their employers. In fact, I read that an organisation is now 5 times more likely to end up in front of an Employment Tribunal than suffer a fire at one of their premises. Nevertheless, this has prompted the development of specific insurance products to help employers afford the cost of defending themselves at tribunal.

I use the employment example because many factors - not simply the increase in high profile data breaches and ICO fines - indicate we are on the verge of massive growth in the cyber insurance sub-market. Many will have read that the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) is calling for the insurance market to provide more cyber products to organisations. In support of this it published a report that outlines key barriers and incentives for growth. We also have the formation of the Cyber Insurance Working Group, with big names such as Liberty International Underwriters, Zurich Insurance, CNA Europe and Oval creating a forum to focus on this issue. Their objective is to develop a framework of recommended information security practices and policies for organisations that they insure. The big question is: what will cyber insurers come to expect?

Most insurance policies have stipulations. For example, some building insurance policies require you to have a minimum standard of lock on all doors and ground-floor windows, in addition to working fire alarms. It stands to reason that insurers will stipulate that organisations adhere to a similar minimum standard of protection with regard to their information security.

Measures for physically securing networks and information will almost certainly be included. However, I'm particularly interested in what the Cyber Insurance Working Group arrives at with regard to data security policy. In other words, what will they see as the minimum standard for employee data security handling procedures? By definition, that could also include a benchmark by which organisations can prove that employees have been adequately trained in these procedures, and understand the key cyber risks and how to avoid them. We may even see insurers offer insurance premium reductions for those organisations that strive for higher levels of data security.

For most organisations, employees are still seen as the weakest link in the security chain. And although there will always be the risk of being caught out by a highly sophisticated attack, there is a desperate need for organisations to protect themselves against the more 'mundane' employee mistakes - many of which are exactly the kind that draw ICO fines. The work emails sent from personal email accounts. The misplaced back-up media. The sensitive data transported out of the office without being encrypted.

In summary, I look forward to the outcomes of the Cyber Insurance Working Group. I believe it has the capacity to be just the driver that the UK needs to achieve a good standard of data security practice across public and private sector organisations.

Why Should I Join A Book Club?

Question 1: Are you an ardent reader?

Question 2: You don't like spending much on books, do you?

Well, if you answered question 1 as yes and the second one as no, then this is for you, Book Club Info.

Incase, you don't mind spending on books and prefer having a personal collection, well you can still read on and get ideas to start your own book club in your locality and encourage children to read books with very less rent.

Book club subscriptions are different than library subscriptions. Library allows you access to all genres and categories and you can get the books re-issued according to its demand and number of copies. But you can get only a maximum of three books at a time, and the worst part is returning them when you still haven't completed reading them.

Such terms, however, are usually absent in book clubs. Book clubs are associated with recent books. Library contains a warehouse of books that have been read and liked for ages. On the contrary, book clubs support the promotion of new coming up books along with the older ones, depending upon the genre you choose to read.

Book clubs grant you membership according to the genre. You cannot have the access to their complete database.

Prestigious book clubs also give you a free copy of their newsletter and recommended books on subscribing.

The main reason why people join book clubs is the amount of money they save, and also the amount of information that they provide. Usually living in a world where literary developments are only restricted to GK books, they give you all information about who's publishing what and who's reading who.

Now-a-days, there are also online book clubs. You can subscribe online, and send them a list of books that you want, and the rest would be done by the book club via mail. This procedure actually saves a lot of time and effort because the larger part of the process is being taken care of by the Book Club itself. All you have to do is mail them your list.

You can also send these subscriptions, online or otherwise, to a friend or relative who loves reading.

Keeping Out Of Trouble With Websites

It is easier to get in trouble with a website than you might think. What follows, then, are a few tips to help keep your website clear of problems. A word of caution: the law is changing in this area, and the specific facts of each case make a huge difference.

1. DOMAIN NAMES

a. Before you register a domain name, be sure to check for existing trademark registrations. If you don’t, and there is a pre-existing trademark, your domain name may be taken away from you.

i. Check the California business-name list.

ii. Conduct a search of the federal trademark register.

iii. Perform an Canadian search.

iv. Also do a Dialog or similar search for state and business-name registries.

b. Even if you obtain a domain name, you may lose that name if you do not use it for a real website. (A pure “under construction” page will not suffice, so get some sort of content and contact information on the site.)

2. LINKING AND FRAMING

a. Several website owners have been sued because their sites either a) linked to other Web pages without appropriately identifying the target page or b) framed other sites so that it seemed like someone else's Web page was part of the framing website.

b. Basically, the problem is one of misidentification: the offending website links or frames in such a way that the viewer doesn't realize who really owns the target site. Similar to plagiarism, it's taking credit either expressly or by implication for Web pages other than your own.

i. For example, linking without attribution was the basis of the Ticketmaster Corp. v. Microsoft Corp. case. There, Ticketmaster sued Microsoft for using links that took users directly to the ticket-sales pages of Ticketmaster's site, circumventing advertising and Ticketmaster's home page.

ii. Framing was the issues in Washington Post v. TotalNEWS, Inc. There the complaint alleged that "Specifically, Defendants' website is designed to feature the content of Plaintiffs' and others' websites, inserted within a "frame" on the computer screen that includes Defendants' totalnews.com logo and URL as well as advertising that Defendants have sold." Obviously, the defendants were trying to make Washington Post content look like their own.

c. So what should you do?

i. Well, the most conservative course is to either:

(1) get permission for every link or

(2) link only to other folks' pages where those pages themselves clearly identify the owner and contain any advertising that the owner uses.

ii. This approach is not practical in most situations, of course. Where it's not, at least do the following:

(1) When you insert links in your Web page, make sure they identify (correctly) the owner and name of the target page.

(2) If you use framing to pull up other folks' Web pages within your own, make sure you don't imply in any way that the site within the frame is yours.

(3) If a site has a linking policy posted, be sure to follow it.

3. TRADEMARKS AND TRADE NAMES

a. Another set of problems arises from using someone else's trademarks or trade names as part of your website, either in the main text or in "metatags".

b. Metatags are key words and phrases used to help search engines categorize a website; they are normally hidden from the user's view, although they are in fact part of the website. When a user performs a Web search using one or more key words or phrases, some search engines prepare a list of sites based on matches with the metatags embedded in those sites. Some search engines also analyze the readable text of websites in their matching functions.

c. Here the problems have arisen where a website uses others' trademarks or trade names or a competitor's trademarks or trade names to draw traffic to its site. (This is not limited to officially registered trademarks: Even if a name isn't registered, the owner may have rights in the name simply from using it.)

d. Having said this, there are some exceptions:

i. For example, comparative advertising which names a competitor in a non-confusing and truthful comparison does not constitute infringement.

ii. In addition, you can use another's trademark or trade name to identify the source of the goods or services of which you are complaining or discussing. In one famous case, a disgruntled former Bally Fitness customer was permitted to keep “http://www.ballysucks.com” because he was using it to criticize Bally.

iii. There is also an exception if the words used are truthfully descriptive. For example, there was no liability for a former Playboy "Playmate of the Year" who built a website that used the plaintiff's "Playmate of the Year", "Playmate of the Month" and "Playboy" trademarks, both on the site itself and as metatags. (Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Terri Welles.)

e. Recommended approach:

i. Even if you are going to use another's trademarks or trade names in a permitted way, to avoid trouble be sure to minimize their use, make it clear that those owners are not endorsing your site, and be sure to use disclaimers.

(1) (Disclaimer here means a statement along the following lines: "'Coca Cola' and the other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this site are the property of their respective owners. We have no affiliation with these companies and this website is not endorsed by them.")

ii. Also, if the owner of the trademark uses the "R" within a circle or the superscript "TM" symbols with the name, be sure to include that whenever you use the trademark.

4. COPYRIGHTS

a. Just because someone else's Web page does NOT contain a copyright notice does NOT mean that the material is in the public domain. The only way you can be certain you are safe is by either getting express permission from the owner to use the material or finding a statement on that site that allows you to use the material. (Many sites allow you to use their material for non-commercial purposes only.)

b. There is a “fair use” exception to the copyright law that allows you to use PART of another’s person’s work (not the entire work) without consent for purposes of review, comment, etc., particularly if the use is non-commercial. Basically, the more of the work that is taken and the more commercial the use to which it is put, the less likely that this exception applies. Because this can be complicated, talk to an attorney before trying to use the “fair use” exception.

5. DEFAMATION AND PRIVACY

a. Remember that just being on the Internet does not protect you against claims of libel. If you put something defamatory on your website or type it in a chat room or post it on a bulletin board you can be sued just the same as if you were handling out leaflets.

b. There are, of course, two classic defenses here: truth and opinion. If you state things that are clearly true or you clearly identify a statement as only your opinion or belief, generally you can speak freely.

c. However, even then, you may run into trouble if you disclose private facts about someone else or you cast them in a false light, even if not in a defamatory fashion (for example, deliberately stating that a life-long Democrat is a neo-conservative Republican).

d. Because the entire area relating to defamation is complex, it might be wise to run any statements you are unsure of past an attorney before posting them.

e. If you host a bulletin board or chat room on your website, you run the risk of potential liability if others post obscenity, libelous remarks, material taken without permission, links to sites that allow illegal free downloads of commercial software, etc.

i. You should make each user of a bulletin or chat room use a “click through” user agreement where they consent not to post pornographic, defamatory or infringing materials or links to sites conducting illegal activities. They should also consent to your company not being liable for other users taking such actions.

ii. If you are a service provider or are hosting a bulletin board or chat room, you can help protect yourself against liability for copyright violations by others using your site by registering under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. (See http://www.copyright.gov/onlinesp/.)

6. OWNERSHIP

a. If your webmaster/mistress is your employee when your site is created or updated, you own the work. That is NOT true with independent contractors: the contractor owns the work unless there is a written agreement to the contrary. (Without a written agreement, you have only a non-exclusive license to use the work.)

a. Your agreements with independent contractors should not only state that you own the work, they should also include an assignment of ownership rights in the resulting product to your company. “Work for hire” clauses alone may not be sufficient.

i. In California many companies forego the “work made for hire” language because California Labor Code Section 3351.5(c) and California Unemployment Insurance Code Sections 621(d) and 686 treat anyone working under such a clause as an employee for unemployment and disability insurance purposes.

ii. You may want to give yourself a power of attorney to sign copyright documents on behalf of the contractor as well.

iii. It’s fine to let a web contractor retain the rights to any underlying software or scripts that operate your site, so long as you have an irrevocable, royalty-free license to use them.

7. CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION ACT

The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (“COPPA”) requires websites to obtain a parent's permission before children under 13 disclose information. (Children under 18 should not be permitted to view information which is adult in nature.) Also note that children under 18 may not be bound by any agreements that you have. You ARE entitled to rely on a user’s statement that he/she is over 18 unless you have some reason to believe they are not telling the truth.

8. PROTECTING YOURSELF

a. Although a copyright notice is not required on a website, it is good practice, since it puts others on notice that you are NOT putting that content in the public domain. (This helps overcome any alleged “innocent infringer” defense.) A copyright notice should be in the following form:

Copyright 2000-2003 Bruce E. Methven. All Rights Reserved.

You can also use the © symbol in place of “Copyright”, but do not use just (c). The first year that the work was created must be included. (Designating a first year later than the real one can invalidate copyright rights.) Subsequent years where substantial changes were made can be added either as a range (2000-2003) or singly (2000, 2002).

b. Jurisdiction is a big issue. If you are selling goods/services over the Internet, you should have your agreement state that lawsuits may only be brought in California. Otherwise, the customer can sue you wherever the customer is located.

c. If you are engaged in e-commerce, you should have a click-through agreement on your website that your customers must use. It is not enough to simply have your agreement on the site; if the customer is not required to “click through” it, it may not be binding.

d. Implied warranties can arise from statements, advertisements etc.

i. With goods–including software–the law creates warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.

(1) Implied warranties must be expressly disclaimed: State that there are no other warranties except as expressly set out in the agreement, including any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

(2) DISCLAIMER LANGUAGE MUST BE CONSPICUOUS, E.G., IN CAPITAL LETTERS O R BOLD TYPE. Otherwise consumers (and others) may not be bound by it.

ii. It doesn’t hurt to use these disclaimers even if you are providing services rather than goods.

e. Whether you are providing goods or services over the Internet, you want your agreement to contain limitations of liability and remedies.

i. Expressly limit the remedy to replacement and/or repair (or correction of the services) at your option.

ii. State that in no circumstances will you be liable for special or consequential damages or lost profits (or lost data).

iii. State that in no case will the your liability exceed the amount paid by the customer. This should be a separate paragraph from the disclaimers of warranty.

iv. Distributors should state in their contracts with customers that the only warranty that applies is the manufacturer’s warranty. (Distributors should try to obtain an agreement from the manufacturer indemnifying and defending them against any litigation brought regarding the product.)

v. Note that some states have laws restricting limitations of liability and remedies, so a clause should be included stating that if any portion of the agreement is found to be invalid, then the narrowest segment possible is to be held to be excised from the agreement, and the remainder continues in full force and effect.

f. Unlike in Europe, outside of COPPA, health-care companies and financial-services companies, U.S. federal and state laws do not generally (so far) require that a website that collects user information have a privacy policy. On the other hand, consumers increasingly look for them.

i. Just be sure you can live with whatever you put into your privacy policy, since the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) has come down hard on companies that violate their own policies.

ii. It’s also an excellent idea to state in your policy that it may be subject to change by your posting an upcoming amendment to it on your site and then proceeding with the change after 30 days except for users who affirmatively opt out.

iii. The FTC does have certain regulations that apply to all direct marketers, including e-commerce websites. For more information, see [http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/buspubs/checklist.htm].

g. Never put anything on your website that would matter if it were stolen. Even though you may have the right to pursue the offending party (assuming you can identify them), the cost may be prohibitive and the thief may be judgment-proof.

h. Several insurance companies offer “cyber-liability” policies. If you have an e-commerce site, talk to your insurance broker about obtaining this coverage.

i. Lastly, with rare exceptions, you cannot offer stock via your website: this constitutes “public advertising” and is forbidden.

9. CONCLUSION

a. Remember, the general rule is that if something is a legal issue in the real world, it’s also a legal issue on the Internet.

b. Most of the litigation has stemmed from "commercial" websites, meaning websites that offer or promote the owner's goods or services. With these you need to be more cautious, particularly with regard to competitors. Personal websites, purely informational websites, websites devoted to a particular topic etc. tend not to face as great a risk.

The foregoing article constitutes general information only and should not be relied upon as legal advice.

Cyber Bullying - The High-Tech Way to Harass

Remember the good old days when bullies were easy to identify? There were your typical types: the kid hanging out near the cafeteria waiting to steal your lunch money or the cool kids smoking in the bathroom waiting to give you a swirly when you walked in. It's no surprise that with the dawn of the new age (the age of technology) bullying has a new face, or lack thereof. Cyber bullying has become the hip new way to torture others. No matter where you go, what you do, your bully follows you. The worst part? You may never find out who your bully actually is.

Cyber bullying is defined as being cruel to others by sending or posting harmful material using the Internet or any other electronic device (Blackberry, cell phone etc..). Cyber bullying differs from traditional bullying because with the use of modern technologies bullies can harass their targets 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The face of your bully may never be known because bullies are able to remain anonymous online. Also, lack of parental monitoring over modern technologies makes it tricky for bullies to be caught. There are many obstacles in stopping cyber bullies namely: the lack of laws and freedom of speech guaranteed by the First Amendment. This article will identify the types of speech that are not protected and can lead to prosecution.

Instead of a few kids at school harassing their favorite targets in the halls or the cafeteria cyber bullying allows bullies to post nasty messages all the time. These tormentors can also create websites about their targets for the world to see online. With the use of cell phones and computers kids can be connected anytime, anywhere, which also means their persecutors have the unique ability to follow them everywhere they go. Sixteen-year-old "Shelia" describes being at her grandmother's house for the weekend and upon logging onto her AIM (AOL Instant Messenger) account. She was immediately flooded with vulgar messages accusing her of sleeping with boys she didn't even know.

Cyber bullying is often described as a 'cowardly' form of bullying because the tormentor can remain anonymous online. Online the wimpiest kid can become the biggest bully because there are no consequences for their actions. These high tech harassers believe that they can't be held accountable for the things that they post online because online messages are often difficult to trace. Many bullies are unwilling to accept punishment even when they are found out, claiming that it wasn't them and hiding behind the possibility that someone else could have logged in under their screen name.

The anonymity of online activity allows people to feel uninhibited thus causing many people to act in ways they never would face to face. A 2007 survey conducted by Media Awareness Network found that 60% of students aged 13-18 had pretended to be someone else online. Of the students who pretended to be someone that they weren't, 17% of them did so because they could say mean things and get away with it.

Cyber bullying is unique because unlike traditional bullying that would have to wait until a parent wasn't present to witness the attack. Cyber bullying can be done in private. Computers are often in teenagers' rooms, text messages can be sent via cell phone faster than a blink of an eye. It's nearly impossible to monitor all the technology available to teenagers.

The two main obstacles in stopping cyber bullying are lack of laws and the delicate balance between free speech and harassment. Currently there are no laws against cyber bullying. Schools have policies on bullying that encompasses written or verbal harassment but only during school hours. Many schools are hesitant to pass policies on cyber bullying because it could be viewed as impinging on student's First Amendment rights. In this case, the First Amendment is a double-edged sword- it protects speech but it limits school's ability to place restrictions on "free" speech.

However, there are several types of speech that are not protected under the first amendment. The following types of speech can lead to arrest and prosecution.

* Engaging in Coercion - Trying to talk someone into something that they do not want to do.

* Threats - Sending someone messages threatening to do harm to them.

* Hate Crimes - Based on race, ethnicity, religion or gender orientation.

* Creating or Sending Someone Sexually Explicit Material or Messages - this includes text, pictures and graphics.

* Sexual Exploitation - Taking a photo of someone where privacy is expected (in a bathroom, locker room etc..)

Domain Name Law - Is It Possible For Someone to Steal My Domain Name?

INTRODUCTION

After being granted the rights to a domain name by registering the name with a Registrar, you receive a letter from a company or their Lawyer claiming to have rights in a Trademark, alleging your registration violates their Trademark rights and requesting it's surrender or transfer to them. Are Trademark owners allowed to take your Domain Name which you have registered away from you under the the law?

THEFT OR STEALING APPLIES ONLY TO PROPERTY

The first thing to understand is that most people including business talk about 'owning' a registered name as if it is legal property. However domain name law doesn't ascribe the status of property to a registered name. The legal character of a name is a renewable form of permission or licence to use the name for a specified period of time under a Registration Agreement. By contrast, by law, property is something which can be owned, mortgaged, assigned, or bequeathed under a Will. Therefore a Domain Name cannot be legally stolen.

Only one Court has ever characterised a domain name as property. A registered name is like a telephone number or car registration plates. You have the right or permission to use them which you acquire from a licensing body, but they never really belong to you or are legally owned by you. Neither can you own a business name or a company name, as they don't have the legal status of property, although if your business name, company name or personal name has been used as a trademark in trade or commerce and has acquired a reputation in the market for goods or services, it may have acquired what is known as common law trademark status.

There have been cases where a Domain Name holder has accused a Domain Name Registrar of being negligent and allowing their Domain Name to be fraudulently registered or stolen by a party who has submitted false papers to the Registrar. This occurred in the sex.com case in 1995, however this situation is not the focus of this article which discusses whether or not a person claiming they have Trademark rights in your Domain Name can take your name away from you.

HOW DOMAIN NAMES ARE ALLOCATED

Domain names are allocated on a first come first served basis. By contrast when an Applicant files a Trademark Application they are applying for a registered grant of legal property. Property can be stolen or subject to theft, not a revocable licence or permission. There are two ways a Trademark Owner can try to take your domain name away from you which often feels like theft as you are being deprived of something which you have purchased and may have put a lot of time, energy and effort into selecting. Domain name law consists of a number of different legal actions and administrative procedures which consider aspects of international trademark law, e-commerce and internet law to resolve domain name disputes.

1. SUBMITTING A COMPLAINT UNDER ICAAN'S DISPUTE RESOLUTION POLICY

A person asserting they have legal rights to your registered name under law cannot just ask you to surrender it to them. If you don't believe the Trademark Owner has a sound claim, the Trademark Owner must either sue you in a Court of law to recover the name or have the dispute heard under the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICAAN) which created the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP). The Trademark Owner pays a filing fee of $1500 to have the matter heard before one Panelist or $4000 to request the matter be decided by three Panelists.

A Trademark owner can bring a Court action for what is called the tort of passing off, misleading and deceptive conduct, and trademark infringement.

Alternatively a Trademark owner can file an online dispute under the UDRP created by ICANN. When you sign up for a registration, nobody questions whether you are legally eligible to use name. Most people don't search company registers, Trademark Registers and other sources to check whether their name might conflict with a Trademark which is in existence.

The UDRP Policy is one which you agree as a condition of your registration of your Domain Name to abide by when you purchase it and electronically sign a Registration Agreement. The Agreement says to your knowledge, your registration does not infringe upon or violate the rights of a third-party. It is your legal responsibility to ensure when you register a name you are not violating the law. The UDRP Policy contains rules to resolve disputes for most top-level generic domain names, although some countries will have their own Dispute Resolution Policies which vary slightly from the UDRP Rules. Therefore it is important to consult the relevant Registration Agreement to acquaint yourself with the Rules which will be applied to your dispute.

You also agree to submit to a mandatory legal proceeding called arbitration by an Approved or Accredited Dispute Resolution Provider if a disagreement arises. A complaint can be filed online by a Trademark Owner who says you are using their Trademark unlawfully and the dispute will be registered and sent to you via email at the address listed under your whois information. It is important to keep your whois registration details up to date.

The whole procedure takes place online and no oral evidence is heard, unless there are exceptional circumstances. The dispute usually is heard in the language of the Registration Agreement. Only written submissions of both parties are considered and a decision may be available within sixty days. There are no legal costs under this procedure nor does the Respondent have to pay the Complainant's legal costs even if they lose the dispute. Registrants can represent themselves, hire a Lawyer or a specialist. Either party can appeal the decision of the Arbitrator to a Court of Law within 10 days if dissatisfied with the decision.

Before an Arbitrator approved to hear disputes under the UDRP Policy will cancel, suspend, or transfer a domain name, the Trademark Owner must satisfy them of each and every one of the following under the UDRP Rules: -

1. the trademark owner owns a trademark (either registered or unregistered) that is the same or confusingly similar to the registered second level domain name;

2. the party that registered the domain name has no legitimate right or interest in the domain name; and

3. the domain name was registered and used in bad faith

These requirements are listed under para 4 of the Policy.

The Trademark Owner has to submit proof of either a Certificate of Registration of their Trademark to the Panel or evidence they have a common law trademark acquired by prior usage which is confusingly similar or identical to the name in dispute. The Panel only looks at the name to the left of the.com or.net suffix in evaluating the names. Also, if the Respondent has only added a generic word such as 'online' or a 'geographic indicator' to an otherwise identical trademark, this addition won't prevent the domain name being evaluated as confusingly similar to the Trademark.

If the Trademark Owner proves element one, the burden of proof shifts to the holder of the name to prove element two. The UDRP Rules in para 4 (c) list the criteria to determine whether the domain name holder has a legitimate right or interest in the domain name based on the evidence, facts and quality of legal argument. For example, one of the factors is whether, prior to receiving notice of the dispute, they had been preparing to use the name to sell goods or services in good faith. If the website hasn't been developed yet this might involve submitting evidence of a business plan.

Another factor is whether as an individual, company or business entity, a registrant has been known by a name that corresponds to the domain name. An alternative consideration is whether you are legitimately using the name in a non-commercial way for some other legitimate purpose. For instance some people set up fan sites to honour their favourite sports star, celebrity or set up a review, parody site, or a political site, which can be regarded as fair use. An important factor may be whether the site was set up with an intention to profit from the Trademark by misleading consumers into thinking that there is some connection between yourself and the trademark owner or is ruining their image.

The Panel will review evidence to decide whether you have both registered and used a name in bad faith under domain law, which includes buying it with the intention of selling it back at an inflated price to either the Trademark owner or a third-party. The Panel may look at any previous patterns of conduct in your registrations, and whether you are using the domain name to deprive the Trademark owner of the opportunity to use their trademark in a website address, or deliberately diverting their traffic to your website by creating confusion in consumers minds that you are associated with the Trademark Owner.

It is hard to state exhaustively how all the domain name laws are applied in practice, but you can get a better understanding of the way the Arbitrators apply the rules by reading both the Dispute Resolution Policy and the index of decisions available on the internet under the World Intellectual Property Dispute (WIPO) website. This will help you formulate your factual and legal arguments. As a Respondent you must file your Response within 20 days of the commencement of the administrative proceeding otherwise you will be in default and the dispute will be heard based only on the Complainant's submissions..

The process if faster, cheaper and informal than going to Court and the Panelists are experts in domain name law, trademark law, internet law and e-commerce.

However it is still open to the Respondent to bring Court action to have the domain name law dispute decided.

2. BRINGING COURT ACTION IN THE COURTS

Most decisions which have been heard in the Courts have involved causes of action such as trade mark infringement, or unregistered trade mark infringement, otherwise known as the tort of passing off, frequently coupled with an action for breach of Trade Practices law in Australia or unfair competition legislation in the United States.

America has enacted legislation specific to cyber law called the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Law Protection Act 1999 which allows a dispute to be brought in the US Courts against a foreign national under some circumstances. It was designed with the intent of preventing people registering, trafficking in or using a name confusing similar to, or which dilutes the Trademark owner's mark or name.

Bringing action in any Court whether jurisdiction in a US Court or the Court of another country can be satisfied involves delay, expense and uncertainty when it comes to enforcing judgement.

However some Trademark Owners bring Court claims as there are remedies available other than the cancellation or transfer of the domain name, such as damages and under exceptional circumstances Lawyer's costs.

CONCLUSION

Whilst Trademark Owners can sometimes try to steal your name from you, this is not the way the law characterises the rights of the Trademark Owner when they bring a dispute either in the Courts or through the administrative online procedure. Whether they succeed in taking your name from you depends on all the facts and circumstances and the manner in which you argue your case.

Cyberbullies Are Going Down!

The internet can be ones best friend or worst enemy. It is a great tool in networking and conducting business. Plus, staying in touch with friends and loved ones across the country. Its much cheaper than making long distance calls and a lot quicker than the postal service. However, it has its downfalls as well. It can also be ones worst enemy, especially with teens and young people today. Their peers make slanderous websites, go to social sites such as MySpace and Facebook and demean each other.

If that is not enough, they use cell phones to make videos to upload on places like You Tube. Also, send horrible text messages and use camera phones to catch their targets in not so nice situations. There have been cases where kids have committed bullycide (suicide by bullying) over this sort of abuse. A recent case is the Megan Meier one in Missouri where a MySpace friend named "Josh" turned out to be a 48 year old housewife and Josh started bullying Megan on MySpace.

In California, there is a bill entitled Assembly Bill 86 introduced by Ted Lieu of Torrance. This passed through the Senate with a 21-11 vote and now goes back to the Assembly for consideration of Senate amendments. If this passes, it would become illegal for kids and teens to bully one another through electronics. Also, they could be expelled from school and face other dire consequences. If you ask me, I am wondering what took them so long?

Cyber bullying has been a serious problem in this nation and really throughout the globe for several years now. These social sites and other free web site hosting sites have been hot beds for attacks and slander against others. You Tube has been the place to upload videos of physical bullying occurring between others. Instant messenger has bullies sending their victims messages in real time. Lets not forget email where a lot of this also happens. Then we move on to other electronics such as cell phones, PDA's and other devices. It has occurred away from authority as situations like these can be very hard to prove. However, it can be done. It's a matter of education. Its time for parents, schools and communities to get involved and crack down on this. Bullying is out right peer abuse and these psychological scars follow a person well into adulthood. This is not uncommon in any abuse survivor whether it be peer, child, domestic, elder or sexual. Plus, bullying affects a whole community and not just one or two people.

I hope this passes into law and people begin to take it seriously. As one who helps those daily that are affected by this, I can tell you that this is not just kids stuff but outright abuse. Its time to get educated and see this for what it is: Abuse!

India - A Future Warehouse of the World

Abstract
India has the world's second largest population and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. India has a promising future, given the unprecedented growth in economy and its clout in the global issues. India is now riding on the wave of a gigantic boom in computer driven new economy. Many developed countries of the world are seeking the huge pool of English speaking talented software professionals in India. As the world is transforming towards knowledge society, India too is moving proportionately competing with the world. With the increase of Internet users and the advancement of information and communication technology in India had boasted the development towards e-commerce in global economic society. In IT sector India is booming as a super power. In the last few years India has made rapid strides in the IT sector especially in the software services and IT enabled services. In this paper we analyses the picture of IT industry in a very near future in India & contribution of India in world's Information Technology Sector.

Introduction
From the 1950s, IBM had a virtual monopoly of computers in India. The 360 series release in 1960s was the major workhouse of the large organizations. They even maintained a chain of programmers who could write down software's for their machines. However in 1978, when George Fernandes, ministry of industries at that time, commanded IBM to take local shareholders into its subsidiary, the company refused strictly and went back after winding up its all operations in India. Its ex-employees then set up Computer Maintenance Corporation, with the primary object of maintaining IBM computers.
During the period of 1995-2000, the Indian IT Industry has recorded a C.A.G.R. (Compounded Annual Growth Rate) of more than 42.4 percent, which is almost double the growth rate of IT industries in many of the developed countries. For Details contact AMCHAM National Secretariat, New Delhi Foreign companies particularly American companies have played a vital role in making India an emerging IT super power in the world. These MNCs account for nearly 22 per cent of Indian software exports. According to the latest NASSCOM estimates, in 2001-02, multinational infotech companies exported software worth Rs. 6500 crore from India. Country's total software export was pegged at Rs. 29400 crore. In terms of investment and growth, U.S. companies like Cognizant Technologies (largest export revenue earning MNC) IBM, Oracle, GE, Cisco, Compaq, Intel amongst others lead the MNCs in the Information Technology sector. Nine out of top 20 Indian IT firms are from United States. These account for over 37% of the turnover of the top 20 firms operating in India. Despite their significant contribution to the IT sector, these companies have to face a number of procedural and operational problems in India.
However, the volume of e-commerce, in India, is far below the levels achieved in USA, which was about 1 percent of the total GDP in 1999. Further, the expected volume of e-commerce in India in 2001 (US$ 255.3 million) is also below the levels expected to be achieved, which in comparison to Australia (US$ 3 billion), China (US$ 586 million), South Korea (US$ 876 million) and Hong Kong (US$685 million) is quite less.

Time has changed the way businesses are carried out. What was supposed to be known to few and limited to the home towns, appears to be an ancient methodology of carrying out the work. The present day brands work on world wide scale, that is they are successful in not just one particular region but have deepened their roots to all the corners in the globe that you can think of.
Information Technology is what constitutes the most important sector in the present day trend of carrying out business. It is because you can not be present everywhere to monitor the work, but with networking and communications, you can always stay in contact with the other business sites of yours.

ICT Approaches of India
A spate of reforms-post-1991 economic crisis-have given impetus to the Indian economy, particularly to the ICT sector. As part of the reform agenda, the Indian Government has taken major steps to promote ICT including the creation in 1988 of a World Market Policy, with a focus on software development for export; telecommunications policy reform; privatization of the national long-distance and mobile phone markets; and development of a more comprehensive approach to ICT. Although India's success is commanding increasing attention and investment, it has yet to result in the distribution of social and economic benefits across a broader base of the population. Challenges-including the perception of an unfavorable regulatory climate, an overloaded judicial system, poor infrastructure and costly access, and limited use of ICT-remain. The emerging shift in government strategy, toward knowledge-intensive services, has created a climate more conducive to addressing enterprise, domestic infrastructure, education and the use of ICT to meet development needs.
Policy: India's focus on self-reliant industrialization in the 1970s and 1980s has been replaced with reforms aimed at positioning India in the world economy: the foreign direct investment process has been streamlined, new sectors have been opened up to foreign direct investment and ownership, and the government has exempted the ICT industry from corporate income tax for five years. These reforms have helped India to become increasingly integrated into the global economy through growth in the export of software and skill-intensive software services, such as call-centers.
In 1986, the Indian government announced a new software policy designed to serve as a catalyst for the software industry. This was followed in 1988 with the World Market Policy and the establishment of the Software Technology Parks of India (STP) scheme. As a result, the Indian software industry grew from a mere US$150 million in 1991-1992 to a staggering US$5.7 billion (including over US$4 billion worth of software exports) in 1999-2000-representing an annual growth rate of over 50 percent.
The establishment of the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was a key step towards effective implementation of telecommunications reforms. In 1992, the mobile phone market was opened up to private operators, in 1994 the fixed services market followed, and finally in 1999, national long distance operations were opened to private competition. Prior to these reforms, the Department of Telecommunications had been the sole provider of telecommunications services.
In addition, to attract foreign direct investment, the government permitted foreign equity of up to 100 percent and duty free import on all inputs. Government-created technology parks also offered professional labor services to clients, a cost-effective program for India since ICT labour is so inexpensive by global standards.
Infrastructure: Teledensity in India has reached 3.5 percent of the population. Approximately 1 percent of households have fixed line connections, compared to 10 percent in China. The mobile sector has approximately 3 million users, growing at 100 percent per annum, and is expected to outstrip the fixed line market in the near future. The number of Internet accounts is around 1.5 million, growing at 50 percent per annum. India also has very high penetration rates of terrestrial TV, cable and radio. Voice and data wireless solutions, for both domestic and export markets, are increasingly produced and used locally.
Access to telephones in Indian villages has improved in the last five to six years through the introduction of the Public Call Office (PCO) run by local shopkeepers. More than 60 percent of the villages in India have at least one phone. This also includes over 800,000 Village Public Telephones (VPTs). Worldtel is undertaking a pilot in four states to secure financing to upgrade the Village Public Telephones so they will soon be Internet-accessible.
In some urban locations, India's Software Technology Parks (STPs) provide infrastructure, buildings, electricity, telecommunications facilities and high-speed satellite links to facilitate export processing of software.

India also has a number of progressive computerized networks in place, including a stock exchange, the Indian Railways Passenger Reservation System, and the National Informatics Centre Network (NICNET), which connects government agencies at the central, state and district levels.
Enterprise: India's well-established framework for protecting intellectual property rights has been an important inducement to business investment: well-known international trademarks have been protected by Indian laws, even when they were not registered in India. In 1999, major legislation was passed to protect intellectual property rights in harmony with international practices and in compliance with India's obligations under TRIPS.
Much of the initial domestic demand stimulus for ICT and ICT services industries in India has come from government: 28 percent of total IT spending to date can be attributed to government and public sector expenditure. Major areas of government expenditure include: financial services, taxation, customs, telecommunications, education, defense and public infrastructure. As a result of the growth in ICT use in India, the ICT industry itself has also increased its domestic economic activity, for example, a number of ICT companies have developed accounting and word processing packages in Indian languages. The potential impact of this growth on the domestic economy is much broader than developing software for export only.
Human Capacity: In spite of relatively low literacy rates among the general population, India has several key advantages in human capital: a large English-speaking population and world-class education, research and management institutions-a direct result of investment in self-reliance in science and technology. In addition to establishing Indian Institutes of Technology in various cities around India to create a large pool of technical skills, the government has a computer policy to encourage R&D in personal computers. The IT training sector continues to grow at a rapid rate: total training revenues in 1998 were estimated at US$225 million, 30 percent up on the previous year. However, one of the biggest challenges to the Indian software industry remains the difficulty in attracting and retaining talented professionals.
Content and Applications: India has a large population with great linguistic diversity. Creating and maintaining locally relevant content for a country with 418 languages is a challenge. Nevertheless, local language content is slowly making ICT more relevant and accessible to a broader cross-section of the population. For example, India's Center for Development of Advanced Computing has recently launched a scheme called iLEAP-ISP to create a free multilingual word processor to be made available to all Internet subscribers. On other fronts, some states such as Tamil Nadu have launched their own initiatives to support the standardization of local language software through interface programs that can be adapted to word processors, dictionaries, and commercial keyboards for use in schools, colleges, government offices and homes.
An emphasis has also been placed on the development of relevant e-government applications in India. Some states such as Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh have started to introduce applications which allow citizens to have faster and more transparent access to government services-for example, the provision of information on laws and regulations, and the procuring of licenses and official documents online.
Strategic Compact: Public-private partnerships, catalyzed by the IT Ministry, have played a key role in India's ICT-related development. One of the positive results of this effort has been the IT Act of 2000, which was based on the recommendation of the National IT Task Force, and aims to set the overall strategy for the IT sector. In addition, the government and the private sector are starting to come together to foster ICT development. For example, a joint effort by the Computer Science Automation Department at the Indian Institute of Science and a Bangalore-based private company have developed Simputer-a cheap micro-computer that enables illiterate users to browse the Internet.
India's development and contribution in world's information technology sector is of highest reputation. Cities like Bangalore have become the favorite(most preferred) destinations of all the big banners like HSBC, Dell, Microsoft, GE, Hewlett Packard, and several Indian multi national firms like Infosys Technologies, Wipro, and Microland who have set up their offices in the city. It is because the city offers good infrastructure, with large floor space and great telecom facilities. This can be judged on the basis of the high growth statistics of India and the changing outlook of the companies towards India .

It is because of this growth many popular brands that have not yet build up there rigid offices in the country are making it fast to have a destination in India too. For example, Sun Microsystems, a global IT major, announced in Bangalore to double the present workforce of the company's Sun India Engineering Center (IEC) from the present 1000 to 2000 in the next two years time. IEC, which is the largest R&D center for Sun outside the US , would also focus on developing products in India to suit the needs of the Indian market, which would be benchmarked globally.
This speedy growth of IT Sector is undoubtedly due to the efforts of Indian government and the other developments that took in the other parts of the globe.

The country has seen an era when after the IBM shutted its shop in India in 1950, the mainframes that were imported into the country were all from Russia . Western computer could not be imported because of an American embargo on export of high-technology equipment to India , which was considered an ally of the Soviet Union .
Slowly, with the time the country could develop its first powerful parallel computer in 1991 known as CDAC, by connecting together a string of less powerful computers.
With time and the continuous growth across the world, the country continued struggling and came up as the world leader in Information Technology Sector.
The industry has grown up to US $ 5.7 billion (including over $4 billion worth of software exports) in 1999-2000, with the annual growth rate not sliding below 50 percent since 1991.

It exports software and services to nearly 95 countries around the world. The share of North America ( U.S. & Canada ) in India 's software exports is about 61 per cent.
The Indian labor is not only cheap but is technically skilled too to the world class level. It is due to the Indian Education System that includes in its course curriculum the practical knowledge of the latest technology that is developed in world along with the fluency in English Language that imparts compatibility in an Indian technician to communicate and work through out the world.

Further the geographical location of India serves it the advantage of being exactly halfway round the world from the US west coast, which is another reason why India is preferred destination of many big brands.

Also, The presence of a large number of Indians, especially engineers, in the US gave India an easy entry into the US software market.
What adds more to the dominance of India in Information Technology Sector is the government policies like the enactment of cyber laws to protect and safeguard the interest of software companies in India .
Setting up of the Software Technology Parks of India (STPI), by the Ministry of Information Technology, Government of India and the International Technology Park in a joint project by the State Government, the TATA Group and the Singapore Consortium to promote and facilitate the software exports is another major step towards the growth of Indian Information Technology Sector.
Similarly an industrial park, known as Electronic City , was set up in 1991 takes more than a hundred electronic industries including Motorola, Infosys, Siemens, ITI, and Wipro, in an area of around 330 acres.
The Export Promotion Industrial Park , built near International Technology Park , gives an exclusive 288 acres of area for export oriented business. GE has its India Technology Center located at this park and employs hundreds of multi disciplinary technology development activities.
The other promotional activities that brought up India to this position include the IT Corridor project. Conceptualized by Singapore 's Jurong Town Corporation Private Ltd, the IT corridor Project was initiated by the Department of IT and the Bangalore Development Authority in order to develop state of the art facilities for the development of knowledge based industries.

Thought's of some World's IT leaders about India

"Economic growth will force better governance, and better governance will feed more economic growth"

SV, NYC, USA
The people and communities at large feel that they don't have the ability to make a difference

Juzar Singh Sangha, Bedford
India has to take more care of the village population who are still struggling to live properly

John Karondukadavil, India, Living in Poland, Jaslo
India can become a superpower if she concentrates on the technology market niche

Devyani Prabhat, Jersey City, USA
India must counter its skills and wage crisis

Pallavi, Sydney, Australia

Hopefully India will lead the world towards a more humane and tolerant future

Nilesh, Antwerp, Belgium

India needs to take strong and clear cut decisions to emerge as a global player

Nivedita Nadkarni, Madison, USA
India is a country gaining economic ground in the world

Justin, Bristol, UK
Indians now have to develop a sense of national pride

Leila, USA
India will never be a superpower, much less a global power

Jonathan, Boston, USA
India has had a sharp increase in the estimated number of HIV infections

Sezai, Eskisehir, Turkey
India's economic success is built on the sacrifices of previous generations

Shekhar Scindia, Edison, NJ, USA
While India's economic growth is encouraging, its sustainability is doubtful

Sigismond Wilson, Sierra Leonean in Michigan, USA

Conclusion
India is a perfect solution for all those companies, which seek for cheap, yet technically skilled labor who have innovative minds and state of art to work over a project. The ample of facilities provide in a perfect working conditions. For rest, cyber laws are there to monitor and safeguard everyone's interest related to IT sector.
All these reasons contribute for India to be as the most adored destination to many companies. . So we can conclude:

•India poised for an explosive growth in ICT
•India emerging as a global R&D Hub
•From brain drain to brain gain
•Millions of jobs will be created in ICT & other emerging technology areas
•Quality issues will have to be addressed
•Private Sector world class institutions will emerge with global collaborations
•India will reclaim its ancient heritage of the world's most advanced knowledge-based civilization called "Bharat".

India will become Warehouse of IT in the world
.

References
1. Goodman, Seymour E.; Burkhart, Grey E.; Foster, William A.; Mittal, Arun; Press, Laurence I.; and Tan, Zixiang (Alex), The Global Diffusion of the Internet Project, Asian Giants On-Line, Chapter 3 (India) and Chapter 4 (China), The Global Information Technology Assessment Group, Fairfax, VA, November 1998.
2. Press, L., Developing Networks in Less Industrialized Nations, IEEE Computer, vol. 28, no. 6, June 1995, PP 66-71.
3. [http://www.stpn.soft.net]
4. An Indian Perspective on IT & Engineering Programs ,Vijay Bhatkar, International Institute of Information Technology, Pune, India
5. Nasscom
6. Anuranjan Misra " Software outsourcing from India" National Seminar on Strategies in Business Process Outsourcing", IIMS, Bareilly, INDIA, Dec. 08-09 2004.
7. Anuranjan Misra" India - An Emerging IT Super Power" International Seminar on India 25 Years and Hence, IIMS, Bareilly, INDIA, Fev. 08,2006.

Why Copying Legal Terms Off Other Sites Is A Really Bad Idea

The attempted passage of laws such as the Stop Online Piracy Act has acted like a shot of espresso for many webmasters and site owners. Many are realizing that the days of paying only passing attention to laws applicable to the internet are over.

The majority of site owners now have basic legal terms on their site. This is primarily due to the fact that Google stuck a spur under everyone's virtual derriere by making the presence of legal terms, privacy policies, contact pages and what have you part of the 200 plus factors it looks at when ranking a site. The problem now is not whether sites have these terms, but where they are getting them from.

As an attorney, I would like to believe that you are using original legal terms on your site. As someone who has been working on the web since the late 1990s, I know that is a laughable notion. The number of people who have simply copied legal terms from one site and republished them on their own must number in the millions. Each of these sites is sitting on a time bomb that is just ticking away.

The initial difficulty with this approach is that most people don't really understand what the legal terms mean. From privacy policies to terms of use, the legal language defines your relationship with visitors to your site. You are essentially laying down the rules of how they can use the site and what you will do and not do with their information.

Where site owners get into trouble is they don't comply with their own legal terms. One of the more infamous stories that floated around the web for a bit was the site owner that was sued for copyright infringement. His site had a DMCA notification page on it. The only problem was he had copied it from another site. The DMCA Agent and address for takedown notices were still listing the information from the site he had "borrowed" the documents from! He never received the takedown notice and ended up paying a good bit of money on the copyright infringement claim!

Another problem that arises when you "borrow" legal terms from another site is copyright. Let me ask you a simple question. Who do you think originally wrote the language you are borrowing? The answer is an attorney. Do you really think it is smart to infringe upon the copyright of an attorney? How do you think that attorney is going to react to having their work republished without their consent? The answer should be obvious.

Most webmasters and site owners have a hostile view towards legal terms for their website. This is a huge mistake. Things like privacy policies and terms of use are written to help you minimize the risk of running into problems with visitors. This is a good thing for you, so stop publishing language on your site that you probably don't even follow and get a set that will help insulate you from problems.

Insight on Making a Career As a Cyber Security Professional

The information technology revolution has changed the way many corporations and governments operate. In recent times many businesses and nations have rapidly shifted the control of essential processes in manufacturing, banking, and communications to networked computers. Every business process has become online and almost every industry is turning out to be more techno oriented. Nevertheless, with the increase in the development of online technology the ratio of scams and cyber security has also increased radically.

These days every big or small organization including government are spending big amount on security to protect their trade secrets, financial data, and some sensitive or critical data. Today all sensitive information or database is regularly stored on a computer. In fact, the recent research from the nonprofit U.S. Cyber Consequences Unit indicates that the destruction from a single wave of cyber attacks on critical infrastructure could exceed $700 billion, which might be equivalent to 50 major hurricanes hitting the U.S. soil at once. Ultimately, there is a need for an information infrastructure safety. As a result cyber security is one of the few solutions that have gained high preference and meet the demands of present scenario.

Cyber security involves protecting the information by preventing, detecting, and responding to attacks. The professionals involved in this profession not just protect systems but data in networks that are connected to the internet. They create security policy for an organization and perform ethical hacking into a company's network and find security loopholes that need to be rectified. Over the past few years many companies in the United States are recruiting them in large numbers to maintain a proper network as well as online security. So, if you are looking forward making a career in cyber security, there are many colleges and universities that offer cyber security distance learning programs.

These distance learning courses and programs not just give you an idea but an in-depth study in IT Infrastructure Security. During this distance learning program, you get exposed to most important facets of computer security, including cyber-law, cyber-terrorism, viral activity, compliance issues along with hardening the operating system. With a distance learning degree in cyber security, you get hold of the knowledge to be on the front lines and safeguard the crucial organization infrastructures from cyber crimes and virus attacks.

The course even prepares you for security management of LAN and WAN environments, including national informational infrastructure. In addition to this, it is also one of the few courses that provide a well-built foundation in cryptography, intrusion detection, and firewall devices. Once you complete this distance learning program, you will be able to install, maintain and monitor existing security software for both private and public companies.

Today the demand for cyber security professionals has increased phenomenally in the United States. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the number of jobs in this field is also expected to grow very rapidly. Consequently, as an individual you must earn a degree in cyber security as it may equip or help you to manage and provide security effectively within the organization.