Common Cyber Crimes Facing the Payments Industry

There is little doubt that an Account Data Compromise (ADC) would be detrimental to the operational effectiveness of any business. However, to organised criminal groups it can be an easy way in which to generate funds for criminal gain. In the 21st century, it can be easier for a criminal gang to commit cyber crimes, such as raiding the credit card details of a poorly maintained website, than to raid a high street bank.

The favoured methodology of website hackers is to exploit poorly written and unsecured websites and then seek to locate the credit card information held within. By focusing on weaker websites in this way, and ensuring that the total level of card fraud is not too high, many of the hackers simply take the 'low hanging fruit' and go unnoticed until it is too late.

Often exploiting the same common vulnerability across multiple different hosts, for example an authentication weakness in a popular shopping cart, allows the hacker to simply trawl the Internet for those websites that use that shopping cart to exploit and collect the reward. No organisation wants to fall foul to cyber crimes and therefore in order for them to protect themselves against a potential information security breach, certain steps should be taken to reduce susceptibility to the most common types of breaches.


The unlawful access to a system that is used by a merchant is on the whole in breach of section 1 of the Computer Misuse act and in the real world, stealing of cardholder data is more than likely to be associated with the stealing of PII (Personally Identifiable Information). Therefore, once a data breach has occurred, it can easily escalate from an exercise where the card brands are requesting their card numbers to be returned, to the local law enforcement agency mounting a personal data loss investigation.

Cardholder data breaches, that are the result of cyber crimes, are increasing raising interest within the various law enforcement and data protection agencies around the EU. Although currently each member state takes a different view on how to deal with the consequences of cyber crimes, growing public awareness on the issue could see law enforcement take a heavier, more legal based role in the near future.

Protecting Your Organisation

There are no hard and fast rules to ensure that your website is safe and secure from the persistent threat of cyber crimes. However, there are some actions that organisations can take to help avoid large fines for the misuse and loss of cardholder data. Below are 10 helpful tips for organisations seeking to become more proactive;

1. Get PCI DSS compliant. Look at your merchant agreement with your acquirer, it will state that you need to be PCI DSS compliant;

2. Plan, Plan, Plan - you don't know when the event might happen but an incident response plan and regular testing of this plan will pay dividends in the event of a breach;

3. Suppliers - know who your suppliers are and also what cardholder data they may or may not be processing on your behalf. They will need to be PCI DSS compliant and could easily be your weak point in the protection of cardholder data;

4. PFI Company - if there is a breach, one may be turning up at your door and asking questions that you might not immediately know the answer to. Pre-appointing a PFI and talking to them about what happens in a breach will iron out any potential problems;

5. PR Response - should the worst happen and your businesses' reputation is on the line, have a pre-planned public response; a response prepared beforehand is far better than a response drafted in the heat of the moment;

6. Policy - one of the easiest ways to mitigate the risk that a breach represents is to ensure that policies and procedures are robust enough to reduce the chance of a cardholder breach and also have the flexibility to respond if a breach occurs;

7. Data Protection - the legal and compliance authorities are becoming more interested in ensuring that the cardholder data that merchants process and the personal information they obtain is kept within the realms of the merchant, and does not get into the hands of the hackers. Whilst the card brands could fine an organisation for the miss-use and/or loss of cardholder data, the data protection authorities can also stop a merchant processing cardholder data;

8. Acquisition of evidence - should an external party be required to investigate a breach, a lot of time, energy and effort can be saved by allowing the external investigative party to investigate and acquire the data. The more that the data is tampered with before a forensic investigation is carried out, the less information can be found out about what actually happened;

9. Check your liabilities - ensure that you have the correct contracts; it may be that your 3rd party has provided you with a 'managed' firewall but what does that mean? You may only find out when a hacker has already taken your customer's cardholder information away;

10. Don't Panic -If the worst should happen, act with a clear head and don't make rushed decisions that could affect the outcome at a later stage.

Signing a Yearly Contract With a Host

A web hosting provider has different payment plans and you can make the payment on weekly, monthly, biannually, or on yearly basis. As with most of the other services, the total cost of yearly payment in advance is less than monthly or weekly payment, and so you are tempted to sign up for yearly contract. With increased competition, a yearly agreement secures at least one year's earning for the host. But you should be careful and should do your homework well before signing up such a contract to save a few bucks. A few points that may help you decide to sign for a yearly contract are listed here.

  • A yearly contract is beneficial if your site requires frequent updates in content or in graphics. You feel secure that your site is safely hosted at a server. It helps you focus on updating the sites and on your business without thinking about new hosts and their plans.
  • Read the contract carefully and see if there is a clause of canceling the contract. If your host fails to provide you any promised service, such as - the connection speed is slow, or frequent downtime, you can terminate the contract only if such a clause is there in the contract. However, you will be bound by the contract if you can not cancel it, and that would affect your business.
  • The canceling clause can also involve making some payment for discontinuing with the services. The host may agree to accept some payment and you can settle down on a reasonable amount.
  • Before you sign the contract, show it once to somebody who knows legal aspects of business and is aware of cyber laws. Paying to this person can be a better option rather than signing an enforced contract.

However, a yearly contract gives you an advantage only if your host is reputed and genuine, and has gained positive feedback from market and its existing customers.

An Insight Into the World of Cyber Forensics


Mention crime and we think of robberies, murders and detectives examining the crime scene, interrogating witnesses and finally nailing the guilty.

But there is, however, another kind of crime, where traditional methods of criminal investigation fall flat on its face. Instances like hacking, cyber fraud, phishing, identity and data theft, all account as cyber crime. Cyber crime can be defined as an illegal electronic operation that target the security of computer systems and data processed by them. Even though it may appear that the effects of cyber crime are not life threatening, they have the potential to disrupt life. A survey in UK inferred that people were more scared of their bank accounts being hacked or credit card details stolen over the internet, than they were of robberies. There have been numerous cases, wherein people have been vulnerable to cyber crime in one way or the other. Crime can never be eradicated, but it can be prevented with the help of effective security to information. Whenever cyber crimes are committed, cyber forensic experts enter the scene and try to sniff out the clues and help in catching the culprits.

Skills and Tools

A cyber forensic expert is supposed to be adept in network security because most cyber crimes take place over networks. They should be competent in data recovery and encryption, because data and passwords are the targets of information theft. The experts should also be aware of cyber laws as most of the cases can got to court, where the forensic expert would be calles either as a witness or an examiner. A cyber forensics expert need not necessarily have to deal with computers all the time. Depending on the nature of cases and crime committed, the experts have to work on mobile phones, PDA's, USB drives, media players, etc.

When it comes to corporate houses, they don't really tend to trust the cops. They guard their systems and data by hiring the services of experts in information securities, such as Agape Inc. Also the process of collecting evidence after a cyber crime has been committed is not a cakewalk. Lot of care needs to be taken while collecting the evidence and processing them, as the loss of even an electron of information could mean that the data would not stand up to legal scrutiny. Of course, the job of forensic experts is very difficult, but they are assisted by some tools which help in processing the data quickly. The cyber forensic tools are software packages that can be used to preserve the state of storage devices or extract data from them. These softwares fall in 3 categories:

1. Open source software

2. Proprietary software

3. Tailor-made software for specific needs, designed by companies.

Courses and Career Path

The field of cyber forensics is still evolving and there is a lot of confusion on the part of students who are interested in pursuing this as a career option. To be good in this field, one needs to master various disciplines.Not only should they be experts in examining an evidence, they should also know the legal procedures of presenting the evidence in the court. For example, a cyber forensic expert would work on computer networks as well as network security. This means that network security certifications from renowned institutes/companies are essential for the candidate, to provide a good starting point.

A career in cyber forensics can be sought both in public and private sector. In the public sector, people are mostly absorbed into law enforcement agencies, state forensic departments and central agencies. In private sector, the scope for cyber forensic experts is immense as many experts would be required to detect and solve the increasing cyber crimes. Also, after sufficient experience, professionals can divert into freelancing and become independent security consultants.

Thus the job of a cyber forensic expert is a mixture of a cop and a geek, which is challenging and interesting, for committed professionals.

The New Identity Theft Law - Will it Work?

Identity theft is now a pandemic, and a scourge for its victims. Is the federal government finally ready to fight back? The Identity Theft and Restitution Act of 2008 was signed into law by President Bush. The new law is supposed to make it easier for the government to convict those charged with pursuing computerized identity theft. Supporters tout this legislation as allowing federal prosecutors to be more aggressive in cracking down on identity theft cyber crime. But will it work to protect millions of future victims? The new law provides for the following:

1. Discarding the requirement that damage to a victim's computer exceed $5,000 over a one year period before charges can be asserted for unauthorized access to a computer.

2. Eliminating the interstate jurisdictional requirement, thus allowing prosecution of those who steal personal information from a computer, even when the victim's computer is located in the same state as the thief's computer.

3. Allowing victims of identity theft to seek restitution for an amount equal to the value of the time reasonably spent to fix their problems.

4. Adding the charge of a conspiracy to commit cyber crimes. (The prior law only allowed for charges related to the actual crime, and made no provisions for conspiracy to commit the underlying charge.)

5. Adding the remedies of civil and criminal forfeiture to better allow federal prosecutors to combat cyber crime. Individuals found guilty of violating the act can be forced to forfeit both property used in commission of the cyber crime, as well as property obtained from any proceeds gained from the cyber crime.

6. Making it a felony to electronically damage ten or more computers no matter the value of the damage caused.

7. Making it a crime to threaten to steal or release information from an individual's computer. (Prior law only permitted the prosecution of those who seek to extort companies or government agencies by explicitly threatening to shut down or damage a computer.)

It is intended that the new law will allow federal prosecutors to be much more aggressive in prosecuting identity theft criminals. Elimination of both the $5,000 damage requirement and the interstate jurisdictional requirement should make it easier for prosecutors to bring charges. But will it really help? The federal government has tried to keep up with identity theft for years with few results. If the feds are truly interested in stamping out the pandemic, it is with the enforcement of the laws, and not just new laws, that will turn the tide. Still, there are encouraging signs that a wide ranging effort is being made. The IRS is helping out by allowing in this next year all but the last four digits of taxpayer ID numbers to be blocked out on 1099's, W-2s, and other informational returns. There is privacy in that move.

Fighting Cyber Crime With A Career In Criminal Justice

Are you worried about the spread of crime spilling over onto the Internet? Would you like to work in a field of law enforcement that handles crimes against people, property, and business in the cyber world? You may want to consider pursuing a career in the criminal justice system. Those who like working with computers and on the Internet can have a rewarding career preventing people from becoming a victim of a cyber crime.

Choosing to earn a degree in criminal justice means you want to prevent crimes against the people. Because most people spend a large portion of their time online, shopping, and browsing for information, or on social networking sites, it has become a breeding ground for those who want to commit theft. It has also given those who investigate cyber crimes a lot more work to do. With a criminal justice degree, you may choose to investigate cyber crimes.

Crimes committed on the Internet are only new because of the venue in which these crimes take place. Identity theft, credit card fraud, and other crimes have been going on for a long time. Stealing personal information for private gain online is a newer crime. Shopping online has hit new heights recently as more and more people choose the convenience of making online purchases as opposed to trips to the mall.

Many people unknowingly set themselves up for cyber fraud. Cyber fraud consists of crimes that at one time were committed by mail or over the phone. Criminals in the act of consumer fraud have become more creative in their efforts to scam others with the advent of the Internet. Criminal justice investigators must always stay a step ahead of those who commit cyber crimes.

One form of cyber fraud is consumer fraud, the act of deliberate misrepresentation to deceive another out of their money for personal gain. People who commit cyber fraud rely on a percentage of people online that take fewer precautions when shopping online. Consumer fraud involves the promise of a service or product after consumers send money, only to find that what they pay for never arrives.

This is the most talked about type of cyber crime, and it is the theft of personal information or data consumers store on their computers. It is also theft of financial information shared on the Internet. Identity fraud is another crime born before the birth of the Internet. Identity fraud occurs when thieves steal information from consumers to gain access to their financial resources.

Before computers and the Internet, thieves procured this information by going through trash to retrieve old credit cards and bank account information. Other thieves hack into networks of financial institutions and banks to get their hands on large sums of money belonging to a number of consumers.

Laws Protecting Elder Financial Fraud Must Come With Stiff Penalties To Do Any Good

Everybody is worried about cyber attacks, identity theft, and hackers when it comes to their personal finances. Many senior citizens are so afraid that they will not do online banking, and they don't even want to file their tax returns over the Internet. The IRS prefers online filing because they would rather have everything in a digital format, who can blame them, it cuts down on their administration costs, and it keeps everything very simple. That is of course until something goes wrong, something like identity theft and financial fraud.

Don't think it can't happen, it happens all the time. For instance, there was an interesting article in the Boston Business Journal on January 14, 2013 titled; "Citizens Bank teller could do 30 years for embezzling from elderly victims," where a teller reportedly stole some $375,000 from three elderly bank customers. What is so unfortunate is that this is far too common a problem. What usually occurs is there is basically an inside job. The teller collects the information from the senior citizen when they make a deposit; their signature, bank account number, and all their information. They may even know how often they make deposits and withdrawals. They also know how much money is in the account.

Next, the bank teller slips this information to a friend who then carries out the fraud or identity theft by coming into the bank, cashing a large check, or creating a fake check or using information from the senior citizen's online banking or ATM pin code. It often happens that seniors may not even know they've been ripped off for many months. This makes it even harder to catch the thieves because by the time the bank finds out or someone doing the accounting or tax return for the senior citizen notices something is missing, it is months after the fact.

By then the thieves are long gone, along with all of the elderly person's money. Luckily, we have stiff penalties for those who would rip-off senior citizens, and that's a good thing. Of course, this is only one way that seniors are ripped off every day, many of the other ways involve much more elaborate schemes, and some of those take years for anyone to ever catch. If you know of someone who may have been ripped off, someone who is a senior citizen, there are all sorts of local, regional, and federal authorities you can contact. It's up to all of us to look out for our senior citizens.

Brawn Vs Brain in New Cyber-Bullying Lawsuit Involving Facebook

A story about an anti-bullying lawsuit involving Facebook was just mentioned on Digital Trends. A woman in the UK, who has been subject to various accounts of cyber-bullying (of course this is all "alleged") has filed a lawsuit compelling Facebook to give up the identities of those cyber-bullies in question. Problem is if Facebook caves in, what will this do for our privacy laws? It's an intriguing situation, should a precedent of this nature be set.

The title of this post is "Brains vs Brawn" but could have easily been titled, "how things change technologically but moral dilemmas don't change at all". Let's take the core issue - cyber-bullying. Is it any different than "playground" bullying say 25 years ago? Well yes and no. The intent of bullies is to instill fear into their victims. Long ago it used to be more physical than psychological. Those who engage in cyber-bullying have the same mentality of that ruthless school bully - an intent to injure whether it be physical or psychological damage. Internet exchanges are more psychological affairs than physical, for obvious reasons. A big difference is that the internet user is "cloaked", he or she can have many security layers to protect identification.

The internet "cloak" can bring out the worst in people which includes trolling. It is much more difficult to harass a person, in person, than it is to verbally abuse someone over the internet. Most things would go unsaid in a realistic, real life situation. Bullying over the net is more like psychological warfare and many more people, with ill-intent, can get in on the badgering. It has the potential to become a cyber-mob situation. One could argue that this has a lot more negative ramifications than the simple occurrence of a playground incident. The abuse can continue without end and has high potential to expand. It is also much more difficult to monitor and/or catch.

So here we have this case where privacy laws will be able to protect cyber-bullies and we ask what Facebook should do about this. On the playground, you either fight or flee. Bullies often need to be confronted. But what to do with cyber-bullying. Confrontation is virtually impossible at this point. Facebook really has no legal obligation to provide the names of those identified as cyber-bullies. Yet there is a need to stop this kind of abuse.

As we read further in the news snippet, it appears that the UK will be trying to implement a monitoring system to dissuade potential bullies from taking to malevolent action. It's quite an undertaking. But what does this do for internet law-abiding citizens? Should a few bad apples ruin the bunch? This doesn't seem like the answer either.

Until some reasonable monitoring system comes into play, it is clear what most be done by the victims of cyber-bullying: stay away from the places where this might happen. Change your address on Facebook and get a fresh start. Don't take the bait. This is the internet after all. There are a lot of baiters.

Other other hand, if you are the victim of relentless cyber-stalking, maybe it's time to get a lawyer and file a lawsuit. But don't expect Facebook to support you to any extent. They are running a business and service after all and it is your choice to engage in their business or not.

A Shortage of Computer Experts - Help Needed!

It's certainly true that the world is facing tough economic times. But in the field of computers and technology the line-up of occupations offering high paying salaries is simply astounding. And one area in particular, known as computer forensics, faces a serious shortage of experts.

So why should you consider a career in this exciting profession? With the FBI's reported increase in crimes, the demand for computer forensics pros is overwhelming. These professionals are needed to investigate crimes that include abuses of the Internet by employees, industrial espionage, hacking, fraud, deception, terrorism, drug dealing and violence among many. In 2009 for instance, the FBI warned the public of scams that target charitable contributors during times of natural disasters.

Computer forensic professionals are sought by law enforcement agencies such as the CIA, the Department of Defense, NSA, FBI, Interpol and big corporations to name but a few. Their job entails retrieving vital information from computers as well as recreating events that would lead to securing convictions. After all, computers can be the target of a crime such as in the theft of social security benefits; they can be the instrument of a crime like in the theft of government secrets; or the evidence of a violent crime as seen in cases of child pornography.

Many nations around the globe deal with day to day threats in national security. This has opened the market for individuals who specialize in cyber technology. Stopping hackers and Internet terrorism has become a priority.

The field can be fun, rewarding and certainly never tedious. A forensics technician will copy the hard drive and retrieve all of the files. This of course will include the files that were lost or intentionally deleted. He or she will analyze the protected folders and the hidden areas of the drive. The expert will conduct an in-depth investigation of the data, will study the user's activities and henceforth, write a detailed report.

To better understand the usefulness of this field let's look at the case of Joseph E. Duncan. Data retrieved from his home computer which included a list of contacts taken with a business card scanner led to his apprehension; the information found on a spread sheet led to his conviction and the death penalty.

So if you're looking for a career that's lucrative, exciting and certainly pivotal to society don't hesitate. Computer forensics' experts will never lack for jobs.

Email Marketing! How Company Can Stay On The Right Side Of The Anti-Spamming Law

Email marketing, leveraging on today well-connected system of sending and receiving messages over a computer network, it is probably the easiest way for companies to keep in touch with their customers while at the same time be on the right side anti-spamming law. If done correctly, Email marketing can be an inexpensive and quick way of reaching a very large audience.

However when it is inexpensive, easy and quick way to reach your audience, it is also the same for spammer to clogs up inboxes and most company people are quick to delete the deluge of mail without even reading it. So it has become increasingly more difficult to promote a business using email marketing.

The key is to get the right people wanting to receive your mailings and staying on the right side of anti-spamming law. To do this, you need to do opt-in mailing, which having people either sign up on your company website or provide their email addresses when they make a purchase.

Email marketing even with opt-in leads can still become redundant and the recipient will likely opt-out from the company mailing list unless your mailings have that "X" factor such as:

  • Offer new discounted products or services regularly
  • Niche targeted mailings
  • Offer some content - even two or three sentences can provide a reason to read your marketing newsletter - such as five steps for a healthy heart from a healthcare company are ways to keep your audience reading your email messages
  • A catchy headline in the "Subject" box
  • A recognizable company name in the "From" box
  • A simple one-click manner in which they can get more information for a specific products or services and ease of reaching the company customer services
  • Focus your marketing effort on benefits to the customer

The "Top Fold" of your mailing is very "critically important" when open and when you got them reading your email, you can put as much as you'd like about your company farther down the page.

Readers should be able to get more information by clicking on various places on the initial email marketing newsletter and be brought to a targeted Landing Page of your website. Don't send them to a company home page and make them go "round the bush" to search for the specific information that brought them there.

Rules of thumb for Email marketing:

  • Make sure everyone on the list has agreed to be there - voluntarily opt-in
  • Reassure readers that their company or individual information will not be shared - have a privacy statement
  • Give readers an opportunity to opt-out from your email list - a must under anti-spamming law
  • Keep information concise, to the point and focused on their needs so that they want to read further or motivated to take action
  • Don't go on a cyber blitz - emailing more than once a week can be annoying
  • Provide a choice of HTML or text version

Email marketing newsletters are a great way to drive customers to your website. Sending a monthly or quarterly Newsletter is the easiest way to stay in touch with your customers and to keep your clients informed of your latest developments in your business, new product offerings and seasonal deals. Your marketing "Newsletter-only" specials or coupons are a great way to increase your company subscriber list and drum up sales. Other pointers for newsletter are:

  • Identify your audience - take your cue from magazine publishers. They know exactly who their target audience is, what motivates these companies or individual to buy and then tailor your marketing newsletter around their needs.
  • Research your competitor product or service and how you can do better.
  • What is your email or newsletter purpose and what you want to achieve - help them to make purchasing decisions and you must first show them how it can make them smarter, healthier, wealthier and more successful.
  • Creating content - your newsletter will need to be more than just marketing material for your products. Including informative articles, interviews or other company information will entice your email subscribers to actually open and read your e-newsletter.

With your objectives defined your content and design of your newsletter ready. All you need now is to launch your marketing material to your customers. For this you need a mailing list and begin with your own in-house list.

You may want to outsource email marketing campaign to an auto-responder service provider to free up your staff to concentrate on your company core business. This type of Service provider Opt-In box pasted on your website to capture visitor details, builds up permission-based mailing list, deliver your newsletter, and track your sales and results. They are generally on the right side of the anti-spamming law.

Whichever way you choose to build your list, the new anti-spamming law requires every email marketing newsletter to include an opt-out provision and a valid company or individual physical address.

A double opt-in policy will ensure that your marketing materials are both welcome and legal. It requires users to confirm twice to their subscription request: once when they sign up, again to confirm the subscription and their valid email address.

How to Remove United States Cyber Security Virus

United States Cyber Security virus is a ransomware that was programmed to attack computers in USA. This virus can be distinguished from other malwares by a very aggressive behavior towards an infected machine. As soon as it gets inside the system, it blocks computer completely. The only thing the owner of the infected machine can see is a message:

Your PC is blocked due to at least one of the reasons specified below.

You have been violating Copyright and Related Rights Law (Video, Music, Software) and illegally using or distributing copyrighted content, thus infringing Article I, Section 8, Clause 8, also known as the Copyright of the Criminal Code of United States of America.

Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the Criminal Code provides for a fine of two to five hundred minimal wages or a deprivation of liberty for two to eight years.


To unblock the computer, you must pay the fine through MoneyPak of $100.

United States Cyber Security virus just like other versions of this ransomware such as FBI virus, Canadian Police virus or Ukash virus gets inside computer using security holes and system vulnerabilities. One might get infected by the virus after downloading a corrupted file or visiting an infected webpage. United States Cyber Security virus is distributed using Trojans downloaded from exploit pages as well as corrupt shareware.

Once the virus is in the system, you will be displayed with a scary message shown on a with "camera" window each time you turn on your computer. This ransomware disables the rest of your programs therefore your PC does not respond to any of your commands. No matter how convincing the message of this virus looks like, do not pay the fine. It will only encourage more of similar viruses to be distributed and definitely will not unblock your system. If you already paid the fine and read this article after your money is spent, contact your credit card company as soon as possible and dispute the charges. Note, none of official governmental institutions accept payments using prepaid payment system. Once you see such a payment option this should be a first sign for you that something is wrong and you are looking at a scam.

To unblock your computer you will need to do some work manually. First of all restart your computer in a safe mode or safe mode with networking. Then run MSConfig. After it is finished, disable all startup entries. You can identify malicious entries easily as they will reference a file from your user folder. Restart your computer one more time. This time it should not be blocked anymore. Do not forget to perform a full system scan of your PC.

Metcalfe's Law - Network Marketing Training

There are few business opportunities today that allow the average individual the power of Metcalfe's Law except Network Marketing. The theory of computer network growth, Metcalfe's Law states that the economic value of a network grows as the square of the number of its users increase. Metcalfe's Law is often cited as an explanation for the rapid growth of the Internet today and can be used to explain the rising wave of information technology that we are riding in the 21st Century. However, even with this knowledge, it can be difficult to convince others of Network Marketing's power due to its virtual cyber status.

The average person's view of Network Marketing or MLM could still be that of a pyramid--far from what Network Marketing truly is and an important subject to address in your Network Marketing Training.

As a Networker who desires success and all the benefits of the industry, your first job is to duplicate yourself. The almost magical results of a good compensation plan begin with you cloning yourself and your efforts with another person. This is when you will start to see the power of duplication and grow exponentially experiencing firsthand Metcalfe's Law.

Robert Metcalfe co-invented the Ethernet in 1973 and is credited for defining Metcalfe's Law in 1980. Metcalfe's Law definition is a Network's Economic Value = Number of Users, squared. For example, Facebook with only one registered user was essentially useless. When 100 users signed up, however, it became more attractive and beneficial for each individual user. Then, when a 1,000 people opted in, it became even better. Facebook is literally a story of the "more the merrier" as the site becomes more useful, enjoyable, and valuable.

Using the Power of Metcalfe's Law not only as a tool to define the industry's business model, but to also show how one's efforts can be exponentially multiplied, is a smart strategy that your prospects can relate to and understand in your Network Marketing Training. This will also better explain how that first commission of $2.34 that you earned in your first month with Amway grew into a residual check of $1,000s of dollars - each and every month.

Reverse Email Look-Up Investigations Can Help Texas Victims of Cyber Stalking

Cyber stalking has become a serious problem for quite a few residents of the state of Texas. What makes it even worse is as more people begin using home computer systems, the issue ends up affecting even more people. It is quite shocking to find out just how many people there really are that carry out the act of stalking innocent targets on the Internet. Not only is this an issue that affects numerous men and women, but there are also a large amount of teenagers and even younger kids that get caught up in the vicious web created by a cyber-stalker. Although many of these people feel as if there's no way to stop the constant emails containing threats of harassment a cyber-stalker is sending them, a reverse email look-up search can quickly reveal the person behind the threats.

The information that can be gained from this effective investigation provides victims of cyber-stalkers with everything needed to file charges with their local law enforcement agency. Under the Texas State Penal Code Sec. 42.07, it clearly states that any type of harassment that is done on an electronic device such as a computer system is a serious crime. A reverse email look-up investigation is the very tool that can help harassed victims see that cyber-stalkers are held accountable for the wrong-doings they choose to participate in.

When cyber stalking becomes an issue that you or one of your family members faces, it is extremely important to notify the authorities. This is simply because the frightening emails threatening bodily harm that you are receiving could very easily turn into a real life nightmare. The next step should be to consult a leading professional that knows everything there is to know about a reverse email look-up search. The expense that is involved with this search is very reasonable, and it only takes a short amount of time to receive detailed results.

The information that victims of cyber-stalking receive through a reverse email look-up investigation can actually help law enforcement officers in a lot of situations. This kind of search is so effective that it can easily identify the cyber-stalker who has been causing you a large amount of fright. In a majority of cases it will also reveal the address where they reside, their phone number, employment information, and a wide range of other very helpful details that can ensure the harassment you're going through is stopped.

Copyright (c) 2011 Opperman Investigations Inc

Cyber Bullies And Your Child

If you are noticing changes in behavior, social interaction and moods of your child or teen; alarms should be sounding in your head. Parents tend to think the worst, especially when kids are uncommunicative about their friends, activities etc. Every parent's worst nightmare is that their kids are into drugs, but that's not the only issue facing youngsters today. Your child may have a problem with cyber bullies. Cyber bullies are peers and other young people who harass their victims through text or email messages and social media sites. Your child may be distraught over this maltreatment and feels helpless to stop or remedy the problem. That's where you come in.

Once you have identified that your child is being victimized, you can help to stop it. The main thing you want to communicate to your child is that you are there to help and protect him/her and that you can stop cyber bullies from harassing your child. Let your young person know that you are out to stop these kind of people, and that he/she does not have to be a victim of bullying behavior. Having an authority figure such as a parent or teacher is empowering to young people, and will allow them to take the necessary steps to stand up to cyber bullies and to stop these vandal from harassing them.

Teach your kids that the cyber bullies are the ones with the problem, and that even though they have been singled out, they are not at fault. Help your child to set privacy settings and report them to email carriers and social networks for abuse. If need be, you can get your teen a new email address and phone number with strict privacy settings so that cyber bullies cannot harass them through text messages and email. Go to school authorities and make sure that you notify them to help stop them from victimizing other by identifying them at school and with law enforcement. Cyber bullies should not be allowed to get away with this damaging behavior. Setting an example of them at school is a good way to deter them from this type of behavior in the future. Communication with your child is the main key to keep them safe online. Your young person must know they can trust and confide in you and rely upon you to help them deal with and stop cyber bullies from making them or others a victim of their malice.

Cyber-Bullying Goes Federal & MySpace Fakery Could Be a Crime

In a highly unusual use of a federal law in which legal experts describe as "creative" and "aggressive," a St. Louis, Missouri woman has been indicted in what may be the country's first case of cyber-bullying. Federal prosecutors say Lori Drew, 49, and others created an account on the social networking site MySpace pretending to be a 16-year-old boy to fool her neighbor, 13-year-old Megan Meier.

According to prosecutors, Drew used the MySpace account to establish a relationship with Meier, acting for weeks to be a boy interested in forming a romantic relationship her. A short time later, Drew suddenly ended the relationship, taunting Meier and telling her the world would be better off without her. Consequently, a distraught Meier committed suicide by hanging herself.

Drew is Arrested and Charged with a Crime

The federal indictment, which was delivered in Los Angeles after state prosecutors in Missouri declined to bring charges, is unprecedented, and legal commentators believe it may seriously stretch the federal statute on which it was based. The indictment charged that in violation of MySpace terms of service, "Drew and co-conspirators knowingly and agreed with each other to intentionally access a computer ... to further a tortious act, namely, intentional infliction of emotion distress." According to the prosecution, Drew violated MySpace's terms by using a fictitious name, among other things, and thus had no authority to access the MySpace service.

"This adult woman allegedly used the Internet to target a young teenage girl, with horrendous ramifications," said United States Attorney Thomas O'Brien. "Any adult who uses the Internet or a social-gathering website to harass or bully another person, particularly a young girl, must realize their actions can have serious consequences."

The Unprecedented Charges may Create a New Realm of Cases

The case presents a new wrinkle in the interpretation of federal law. Legal experts warned that such an interpretation could criminalize routine behavior on the internet. After all, people regularly create accounts or post information under aliases for many legitimate reasons, including avoiding spam and a desire to maintain their privacy online.

This new interpretation also gives a business contract the force of a law: violations of a web site's terms of service could now lead to criminal sanctions, instead of just civil lawsuits or ejection from a site.

"I think the danger of applying a statute in this way is that it could have unintended consequences," said John Palfrey, a Harvard law professor. "An application of a general statute like this might result in chilling a great deal of online speech and other freedom." Drew is scheduled to be arraigned in St. Louis but the trial will be held in Los Angeles were MySpace is headquartered. If convicted of the charges, Drew faces up to 20 years in prison.

Can a Cyber Hacker Group, Malware Team, or Internet Virus Spreader Just Disband and Quit?

Malicious and show-off style hacking is questioning the trust of online communication, identity privacy, and e-commerce. Governments, Corporations, Militaries, HGOs, and citizens alike are worried - as well they should. It seems sometimes there is no safe computer system anywhere in the world, even as the world moves to securers cloud data-centers. As the authorities hunt down the hackers and catch some, there appear to be plenty more to take their place, and plenty of ISPs to hide behind or use in their tricks.

So far, looking at the score board, it looks as if the hackers, cyber terrorists, and rogue nation cyber-commands are winning, while the users, IT departments, corporations, and governments are losing. Yes, the hackers have put egg on the faces of some of the top computer security firms, and made them look silly, incompetent, and unable to secure their systems. There was an interesting article in the mainstream media, and on MSNBC discussing how the Lulz Sec Hacker Group called it quits and disbanded.

The article in MSNBC website titled; "Hacker group LulzSec says it's done - 50 days of cyber capers included breaches of PBS, Arizona, Sony, FBI partners," was quite enlightening and discusses this major turn of events stating;

"The group has stolen mountains of personal data in a dozen of attacks, embarrassing law enforcement globally while boasting about the stunts online. The group's disbandment comes unexpectedly, & is a sign that law enforcement investigations are closing in. Rival hackers have joined in the hunt, releasing information which could point to the six-member group. One of the group's six members was interviewed by The AP on Friday, and gave no indication that its work was ending."

Can hacker groups just quit like that, and the problem is over, yes, perhaps, and why not, they've won and it is obvious they have their bragging rights. But can a hacker who does it for the sport, loves it, and enjoys the adrenalin rush actually quit and never hack again? That, I wonder, I'd say probably not. But, they might go into computer security and teach the authorities a thing or two. It would be nice if they joined the other side, rather than disrupting the confidence in the Internet.

Of course, then someone else would come along if and replace them if they were not hacking. Okay so, I guess we need a safer and more reliable internet and until we get that we are not going to have the level or trust in the system we need to keep the flow of information and electronic commerce going. Please consider all this and think on it.